Hormones Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Hormones Deck (29):
1

Luteinizing Hormone (LH)

Source: Anterior Pituitary

Type: Peptide

Action: stimulates ovulation in females; testosterone synthesis in males

2

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)

Source: Anterior Pituitary

Type: Peptide

Action: stimulate the adrenal cortex to synthesize and secrete glucocorticoids (e.g. cortisone and cortisol)

3

Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH)

Source: Anterior Pituitary

Type: Peptide

Action: stimulates the thyroid to produce thyroid hormones

4

Prolactin

Source: Anterior Pituitary

Type: Peptide

Action: stimulates milk production and secretion

5

Endorphins

Source: Anterior Pituitary

Type: Peptide

Action: decrease sensation of pain; can promote euphoria

6

Growth Hormone (GH)

Source: Anterior Pituitary

Type: Peptide

Action: stimulates bone and muscle growth; raises blood glucose levels

7

Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH; vasopressin)

Source: Hypothalamus (released by posterior pituitary)

Type: Peptide

Action: stimulates water reabsorption in kidneys by increasing permeability of collecting duct

8

Oxytocin

Source: Hypothalamus (released by posterior pituitary)

Type: Peptide

Action: stimulates uterine contractions during labor and milk secretion during lactation; may promote bonding behavior

9

Triiodothyronine (T3) and Thyroxine (T4)

Source: Thyroid (follicular cells)

Type: Amino Acid Derivatives

Action: stimulates metabolic activity

10

Calcitonin

Source: Thyroid (parafollicular or C cells)

Type: Peptide

Action: decreases blood calcium concentrations

11

Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)

Source: Parathyroids

Type: Peptide

Action: increases blood calcium concentrations

12

Glucocorticoids: Cortisol and Cortisone

Source: Adrenal Cortex

Type: Steroid

Action: increase blood glucose concentrations; decrease protein synthesis; anti-inflammatory

13

Mineralocorticoids: Aldosterone

Source: Adrenal Cortex

Type: Steroid

Action: increase water absorption in the kidneys by increasing sodium reabsorption; promote potassium and hydrogen ion excretion

14

Epinephrine and Norepinephrine

Source: Adrenal Medulla

Type: Amino-acid Derivative

Action: increase blood glucose concentrations and heart rate; dilate bronchi; alter blood flow patterns

15

Glucagon

Source: Pancreas (a-cells)

Type: Peptide

Action: stimulates glycogen breakdown (glycogenolysis); increases blood glucose concentrations

16

Insulin

Source: Pancreas (b-cells)

Type: Peptide

Action: lowers blood glucose concentrations and increases anabolic processes

17

Somatostatin

Source: Pancreas (d-cells)

Type: Peptide

Action: suppresses secretion of glucagon and insulin

18

Testosterone

Source: Testes and adrenal cortex

Type: Steroid

Action: develops and maintains male reproductive system and male secondary sex characteristics

19

Estrogen

Source: Ovary and placenta

Type: Steroid

Action: develops and maintains female reproductive system and female secondary sex characteristics

20

Progesterone

Source: Ovary and placenta

Type: Steroid

Action: promotes maintenance of the endometrium

21

Melatonin

Source: Pineal Gland

Type: Peptide

Action: involved in circadian rhythms (physical, mental, and behavioral changes that follow a 24-hour cycle, responding primarily to light and darkness)

22

Erythropoietin

Source: Kidney

Type: Peptide

Action: stimulates bone marrow to produce erythrocytes

23

Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP)

Source: Heart

Type: Peptide

Action: promotes salt and water excretion

24

Thymosin

Source: Thymus

Type: Peptide

Action: stimulates T-cell development

25

Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone (TRH)

Source: Hypothalamus

Type: Peptide

Action: stimulates release of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and prolactin from the anterior pituitary

26

Growth-Hormone-Releasing Hormone (GHRH)

Source: Hypothalamus

Type: Peptide

Action: stimulates release of growth hormone (GH) from the anterior pituitary

27

Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (CRH)

Source: Hypothalamus

Type: Peptide/ Neurotransmitter

Action: involved in stress response; stimulates corticotropes to secrete adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the anterior pituitary

28

Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH)

Source: Hypothalamus

Type: Peptide

Action: stimulates release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary

29

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

Source: Anterior Pituitary

Type: Peptide

Action: Stimulates follicle maturation in females; spermatogenesis in males