Genres Flashcards Preview

Music 162 Midterm 1 > Genres > Flashcards

Flashcards in Genres Deck (16):


• Series of verses tell story, often historical or personal
• Sung in strophic musical form
• Circulated on large sheets of paper called broadsides
• Often broadsides added a catchy chorus, repeated between verses
• British ballad tradition is one of the main roots of American music


Old-time music

• Broadly refers to early American styles including string band music, ballad songs, sacred songs, and work songs


Gospel music

• Large body of sacred song with evangelical, religious texts
• Influenced by popular songs, in use of repetition and memorable combinations of melody and text designed for mass consumption
• Usually accompanied by musical instruments


Black spirituals

• Genre created by black slaves in the 19th century
• Energetic, improvisational, call-and-response style
• African-American aesthetic focus of polyrhythmic textures



• The first Latin-American style to have an international impact
• A Cuban musical style introduced to Europe in the 1850s
• Involves a characteristic syncopated rhythm, usually in the bass
• Tango was influenced by the habanera rhythm


Minstrel show

• First form of musical and theatrical entertainment to be regarded as distinctively American
• Featured mainly white performers in blackface parodying African-American mannerisms
• Typical 1840s minstrel song was sung by one member, accompanied by a fiddle, banjos, tambourine, and rib bones



• Rose to popularity in the U.S. in the 1820s, initially regarded as scandalously intimate
• By the end of the century, regarded as a symbol of sophistication
• Smooth, graceful, triple-meter accompaniment


Brass band concerts

• From Civil War through 1910s, one of the most important musical aspects of American life
• Brass band popularity spread rapidly during and after the Civil War (1861 on)
• Many bands played arrangements of popular sheet music hits as well as patriotic music


Tin Pan Alley

• By the 1880s, a publishing firm boom erupted in New York City, centered around a block in lower Manhattan that became known as Tin Pan Alley (because of the cacophony)
• Rise of the modern American music business, aimed at providing hits for an urban market
• Shared mutually beneficial relationship with Broadway in the 20s and 30s (“golden age”)



• Popular theatrical form descended from minstrelsy
• Originated around the turn of the century
• Most important medium for popularizing Tin Pan Alley songs
• Consisted of a series of unrelated acts presented sequentually



• Emerged in the 1880s, peaking in popularity in the 1910s
• In some regards a descendant of minstrelsy, with white musicians using simplified African American elements
• Often involved Tin Pan Alley composers adding syncopated rhythms to spice up pop tunes


Plantation songs

• Descended from the minstrel tradition
• Popular in the 19th century
• Best-known composer is James A Bland
• Accused of pandering to white stereotypes of blacks


Jazz Age

• Sparked by the recordings of the ODJB (Tiger Rag, etc)
• Represented cultural shift, intensification of African American influence on musical taste
• Created more opportunities for black musicians (including Noble Sissle and Eubie Blake)
• Still an era of racial inequality (segregation, blackface in The Jazz Singer)



• Reached popularity in the 1910s, with the help of Vernon and Irene Castle
• Changed the face of American popular dance
• Represented departure from restrained movements, towards syncopated dance styles


Parlor song

• Reached peak of popularity in the 19th century
• Most popular songs were by Paul Dresser and Harry von Tilzer
• Success was driven by selling sheet music and cheap pianos to the middle class
• Piano remained the center of domestic music-making until the radio in the 20s



• Introduction of the microphone enabled shift from exaggerated vaudeville style to a more private musical experience
• First emerged in the 1920s