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What was it called when Austria was forced to join Germany again in 1938?



Hitler was arrested during the Munich Putsch, 1923. True or false?

False - arrested 2 days later (so kinda true)


Who were the November criminals and what year was this?

The November criminals were the people that signed the Treaty of Versailles, when the common belief among the people of Germany was that they were doing well in the war and had no reason to ceasefire. This was in 1918/9


What was Article 48?

In an emergency, the president can make laws without the Reichstag


Did Germany use plebicites or proportional representation?



Chose the correct policies from the Treaty of Versailles:
1) Germany became the Allies' property
2) Germany was not allowed to unite with Austria
3) Germany not allowed within 50 km of the Rhineland
4) The military of Germany was abolished

2) Germany was not allowed to unite with Austria
3) Germany not allowed within 50 km of the Rhineland

1) FALSE - some of it did, but not all
4) FALSE - reduced to 100,000


Give the definitions of:
a) Volksgemeinschaft
b) Gleichsaltung

a) The people's community
b) Bringing people into line (of a Nazi philosophy)


Did the crisis in the Ruhr influence the Munich Putsch?

Yes - in 1923 when France and Belgium stole goods from the Ruhr because Germany couldn't afford to pay with money, the people got angry which was one of the contributing factors to the Munich Putsch


Who stopped...
a) The Kapp Putsch 1920
b) The Munich Putsch 1923
c) The Sparticist 1919

a) The people - by striking, the Kapp Putsch couldn't rule
b) The government - armed police went out
c) The Freikorps - A military like group, the leader s Luxemburg and Liebknecht were sentenced to death


Which uprisings wanted to overthrow the Weimar government, which were against the Treaty of Versailles?

All wanted to overthrow the Weimar government, the Putsches were against the Treaty of Versailles specifically


The Sparticist uprising was a capitalist uprising

False - it was a communist revolution inspired by the Russians


1 loaf of bread went from 163 marks in 1922 to around 200,000,000 marks in 1923. True or false?



What was bartering and why was it popular?

Bartering is trading items, and it became popular because money was becoming worthless


What was the new temporary currency called?



Why was passive resistance a problem and what is this?

Passive resistance was when the government made everyone strike and stop doing stuff for the French. This had a huge impact on the good economy beforehand, so it was a huge problem which caused hyper inflation


The Dawes plan was organized by Hitler. True or false?

False - it was organised by Stresemann in 1924 (a loan of money from the USA)


What was the Locarno Pact?

When all countries renounced the use of invasion and force except for in self defence. France was still untrustworthy, but signed too


How did the League of Nations (1926) help Germany?

It meant that Germany could raise its issues and the other countries could help


Why was America inclined to help Germany through the Dawes and Young plans?

Because by loaning money to Germany, they knew Germany would pay Britain and France reparations, and the Britain and France would pay it back to America for their help in the war


Did society improve during Stresemann's years leading?

Yes - censorship was mostly abolished and culture, literature and society greatly improved


When did Stresemann die?

In 1929, age 51 from a stroke


What happened to America in 1929 which affected Germany?

The wall street crash, causing poverty and depression again on Germany


Nazi changes from 1924 - 1929
1) Gained more seats
2) Mein Kampf became a bestseller in 1925
3) Public meetings where the Nazis changed their beliefs to match what the people wanted and encouraged them to talk
4) Ignoring the middle classes
5) Won over working classes

2) Mein Kampf became a bestseller in 1925
3) Public meetings where the Nazis changed their beliefs to match what the people wanted and encouraged them to talk
5) Won over the working classes

1) FALSE the gained more members but only 12 seats in 1928
4) FALSE - Nazis promised to protect their wealth


Why did antisemitism appeal to the lower classes?

Because they already had so little, it was someone to blame


When was the ban lifted from the Nazi party?



The Reichstag was burned down by communists. True or false?

No one knows, but the Nazis blamed communism to eliminate their opponent. It worked


Who were the SA and what else were they known as? Why did Germany like them?

Also known as the brownshirts, they were a private army. The Treaty of Versailles said the NATIONAL army had to be lowered, but said nothing about private armies - this gave Hitler power which helped Germany feel less vulnerable


Hitler was appointed chancellor in
a) 1933
b) 1930
c) 1929

a) 1933


People feared communism because it lead to...

economic disruptions, revolutions, disagreements and unnecessary trouble in general


Fill the blanks:
Hitler was appointed chancellor in ____ because the Nazi policies were ___ the people. He was the only strong alternative to _________, and he made great ________. The strength of the __ gave people ____ during the Great __________. Also, __________ enforced his belief constantly, making Hitler the right choice for Germany



What happened during the Night of the Long Knives 1934?

The main socialist enemies were killed, reducing the opposition.


Why did Hitler choose the Army over the SA?

Because by gaining the army's trust, they would fight for him now (what Hitler wanted). The SA - led by Rohm who was killed - started to believe in equality more


Fill the blanks:
The significance of the Enabling ___ was that it meant Hitler could make ____ in the _____ _______. Also, he didn't have to follow the ____________ . Although it was agreed it would last for 4 years (____ - ____) Hitler's position meant that he could ______ that.

Reich Cabinet
1933 - 1937


What was the Hitler oath?

"I swear to be true to Adolf Hitler, our fuhrer, and swear obedience" - allegiance to Hitler personally, not Germany


It became compulsary for all to give the Hitler salute. True or False?

True - even if you weren't a Nazi


Why were trade unions banned in 1933?

Because Hitler wanted Germany to be independent from all other countries


Auschwitz - the first concentration camp - was opened in 1933. True or false?

False - Dachau was the first concentration camp opened in 1933


What was the original purpose of concentration camps?

To eliminate enemies of the Nazis. At first, mainly communists and socialists


All political parties disbanded from 1933 - 1934. True or false?

True - now the Nazis had no opposition


Explain Schacht's principles for the New Plan and recovery when he had power in 1934 - 1937
a) Limiting imports
b) Trade agreements
c) Careful government spending
d) Reducing unemployment

a) Germany didn't have to pay other countries for goods.
b) Giving stuff to gt what they needed
c) Saved money
d) By limiting imports, factories had to produce more for the country. This increased employment


Explain Goering's principles for the 4 Year Plan (they had implications of war) when he had power in 1937 -
a) Increased raw material production
b) Invented new materials
c) Reduced imports
d) Become self sufficient

a) Creates jobs and abolished needs for imports - saving money
b) Unique products for war
c) Saved money
d) Didn't need help
All imply war preparation before it was even suggested


What does Lebensraum mean?

Living space (What Hitler wanted more of for Germany)


What was the only workers union called (Also Nazi)?



What were the 3 K's?

Kinder - children
Kuche - kitchen/ home
Kirche - church/ community


What were children taught about Jews?

Their noses were the number 6
They were evil, mean and uncivilised


By bringing racial policy into young education, it created an...

All Nazi society in the future


At the start of each lesson...

The Hitler salute was made


What does this nursery rhyme from the 1930s suggest?
"What puffs and patters? What clicks and clatters? I know, oh what fun? It's a lovely Gatling gun"

German children were encouraged to believe that killing was a game and it was fun. In the future, they would be encouraged to join the army


The courts were made of loyal _____ lawyers and judges



How did the Nazis keep the army in line?

By bribing generals


The Nazi Soviet pact was an alliance between...

The Soviet Union (Russia) and the Nazis in 1939. They promised to not go to war.


What happened in the Rhineland in 1936?

Germany went into the Rhineland (Against the Treaty of Versailles) and weren't stopped


Which of these were Hitlers Foreign Policy Aims?
a) Kill all Jews worldwide
b) Create an all German (people) country
c) Destroy the Treaty of Versailles
d) (Lebensraum) Take land in East Europe

b) Create an all German (people) country
c) Destroy the Treaty of Versailles
d) (Lebensraum) Take land in East Europe


Did Germans like Conscription and Rearmament?

Yes - it made them feel stronger


Censorship helped the Nazis to consolidate power because...

The German people knew only Nazi beliefs, and no views from the opposition


What challenges were faced by The Weimar Republic from 1919 - 1923? (Impact of the 1st World War) - what topics would you talk about?

Impact of the Treaty of Versailles
Weaknesses Of Weimar Government
Political Instability - Spartacist Uprising, Kapp & Munich Putsches
Events in the Ruhr 1923


Why Were the Stresemann years considered a Golden Age? (Recovery of Weimar) - what topics would you talk about?

Recovery from hyperinflation
Dawes and Young plans
Locarno pact
League of Nations
US investment
Social and political developments


How and why did The Weimar Republic collapse between 1929 & 1933? (End of the Weimar Republic) - what topics would you talk about?

Social and political impact of the depression on the Weimar Republic
Hitler's electoral appeal
Role of the SA
Political extremism and scheming 1929 - 1932


How did the Nazis consolidate their power between 1933 and 1934? (Consolidation of power) - what topics would you talk about?

Hitler as Chancellor
Reichstag fire
1933 election and Enabling Act
Trade unions and political parties
Night of the Long Knives
Hitler becomes Fuhrer


How did Nazi economic, social and racial policy affect life in Germany? (Nazi economic, social and racial policy) - what topics would you talk about?

Reducing unemployment
Policy towards workers
Women and the 3 Ks
Controlling education
Hitler Youth movement
Treatment of the Jews


What methods did the Nazis use to control Germany? (Terror and persuasion) - what topics would you talk about?

Use of SS and Gestapo
Control of legal system
Goebbels and propaganda
Use of rallies, radio and cinema
Censorship of newspapers and the arts


What factors led to the outbreak of war in 1939? (Hitler's foreign policy) - what topics would you talk about?

Hitler's foreign policy aims
Rearmament & conscription
The Rhineland 1936
Anschluss 1938
Sudetenland 1938
Nazi-Soviet Pact 1939


What happened in Sudetenland in 1938?

Hitler invaded (it was an area bordering Germany and Czechoslovakia taken away in the Treaty of Versailles). Britain and France let Hitler have it peacefully fearing war (appeasement), as long as he didn't invade Czechoslovakia. He did 6 months later and Britain and France again ignored their government, but he war started when he invaded Poland (1st September 1939)


Who broke the Nazi-Soviet pact first?

Germany when they invaded the USSR


What did the SA do?

Disrupted other political demonstrations
Paraded to show their strength


What makes a source useful from:
a) Content
b) Origin
c) Purpose

a) Facts, statistics, kinda opinions & attitudes, detail
b) Expert, from the country, authority at the time - primary secondary doesn't matter, but point it out
c) to inform/ to educate

Of course, they all depend on the context of what the historian wants to use the interpretation first. For example, if they want it to show someones opinion, then origin from that person is useful, and bias doesn't matter, as it is most useful it is directly from them


What are the main contexts from this unit? (11)

November Criminals
Long held anti-semitic beliefs
Traditional strong leadership
Mein Kampf
Stab in the back myth
Fear of communism
"Greater Germany"
Weimar government reliance on others