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Flashcards in America Deck (115)
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1

Define communism

An economic theory where collective ownership of property makes a classless and equal society.
Seen as the antithesis of the US and democracy

2

What was the Truman Doctrine about?

Preventing the spread of communism across the world, and helping other countries wanting to fight communism

3

The US and the USSR had an ____ ____ to gain military superiority

Arms race

4

What word is used to describe two sides pushing each other to the limits and escalating a dangerous situation in the hope of pressuring opponents to give up?

Brinkmanship

5

Where was Checkpoint Charlie?

A crossing point between the split West and East Berlin when the Berlin Wall split the city

6

Describe the difference between a hot war and a cold war

A hot war contains actual violence and death
A cold war is just a very serious rivalry where no actual violence takes place

7

What does containment mean?

The US trying to contain communism by preventing it spreading to other countries

8

Why did Americans fear the Domino Theory?

The domino theory suggested that if neighbouring countries to the USSR fell to communism, it would eventually spread across the world - like domino's - and cause America to be outnumbered

9

What does detente mean?

The relaxing of tension between the superpowers

10

Describe these two policies, who introduced them and when
a) Glasnost
b) Perestroika

Both of these policies were created by Mikhail Gorbachev
a) Literally translating to "openness", this reduced censorship significantly in the later 1980's
b) Literally translating to "restructuring", this allowed private ownership again by decentralising the Soviet economy to improve it in 1987
These are both more capitalist tactics to help the country, proving that Gorbachev put his countries beliefs before his political beliefs

11

The Hotline or 'red telephone' was a direct line of communication between who? And what year was this established?
a) The White House - US & 10 Downing Street - UK
b) The White House - US & The Kremlin - USSR
c) National Assembly of People's Power - Cuba & The White House - US
d) 10 Downing Street - UK & The Kremlin - USSR
e) National Assembly of People's Power - Cuba & The Kremlin - USSR

b) The White House - US & the Kremlin - USSR

12

Define ICBM

InterContinental Ballistic Missiles - they were missiles that could carry nuclear bombs thousands of miles

13

Fill the gaps:
_______ _________ described in a speech to describe the growing ______ between Western and Eastern _______ (or ______-influenced states) by using the phrase "____ _______"

Winston Churchill
Divide
Soviet
Europe
Iron Curtain

14

What did the Limited Test Ban Treaty state?

When signed in August 5th 1963, this worldwide agreement prohibited nuclear weapons from being tested in the atmosphere, space or underwater

15

The missile gap worked which way round?
a) US > USSR
b) US < USSR

b) US < USSR

16

MAD stood for...

Mutually Assured Destruction (or...)
Everyone Will Die
This became the ultimate deterrent against a nuclear war

17

What was SALT?

Strategic Arms Limitation Talks were negotiations between the US and USSR to limit the amount of new nuclear missiles.
First negotiations extended 1969 - 1972, each side agreed to keep strategic ballistic missile launchers at current numbers and provided for the increase in submarine-launched ballistic missiles
Second negotiations 1972 - 1979, each side provided a broad range of limitations on offensive nuclear weapons

18

When did the Space Race begin and why?

In 1957 when the Soviet Union successfully launched their first satellite - Sputnik

19

Star Wars was a nickname given to what plan?

Reagan's plan to build a space system capable o destroying incoming nuclear missiles. Introduced March 23rd 1983 with the official title SDI - Strategic Defence Initiative

20

Name some famous works of literature from these time perids -
a) 1950s
b) 1960s
c) 1970s

a) Farenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury, 1984 by George Orwell (famous in 1950s) - distopian futures with morals for today's society
b) The Snowy Day by Ezra Jack Keats, The Feminine Mystique by Betty Friedan - equality issues
c)

21

What was music like in these years?
a) 1950s
b) 1960s
c) 1970s
d) 1980s

a) Rock and Roll - Elvis Presley - different to parents
b) British bands - Beatlemania & Rolling Stones
Protest songs - Bob Dylan - enact change
c) Disco & rock - The Jacksons
d) Rock & techno & rock and roll - Led Zepplin

22

When was the Wall Street Crash?

October 1929

23

Talk about how the Wall Street Crash affected
a) The countryside
b) The urban areas

a) Farmers unable to sell produce to people, as they were in poverty. Farmers then became poor.
ALSO, there was a dust bowl that occurred during the early 1930's. This made crops difficult to grow, so farmers not only couldn't sell, but they also had little to sell
b) Factories closed causing unemployment

24

How many hobos were there roughly in 1932?

2 million

25

What estimated amount of the population were recieving no income in 1932?

25%

26

During the Wall Street Crash, schools closed because...

Teachers were unable to be paid

27

PRESIDENT
1929 - 1933
Republican or Democrat?

President Herbert Hoover
Republican

28

What were those fancy words (one looks spelt wrong, the other sounds normal) that President Hoover believed in as part of his political beliefs?

Laissez-faire - this means that by not getting involved with the issue, it will sort itself out
Rugged individualism - that every individual is self-reliant

29

What were Hoover Blankets?

Newspapers used as blankets. This was done in spite of Hoover and his lack of action

30

Which of these items were used to build houses?
a) rocks
b) tin
c) cardboard
d) wood
e) bricks

All of them - anything that people could use

31

Describe the following Acts with their years
a) Agricultural Marketing Act
b) Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act

a) 1930 - The government lent money through special marketing groups known as cooperatives to try and fix prices, futhermore gain profit
b) 1930 - This protected farmers by increasing import duties (taxes) on foreign goods. However, foreign countries refused to trade as a result

32

What can you say about Hoover and government budgets?

He refused to borrow money, he cut taxes by $130 million, but now the government had less money to help people

33

Complete this sentence:
In order to reduce unemployment, President Hoover...

Created jobs (such as building roads and dams)

34

PRESIDENT
1933 - 1945
Republican or Democrat?

President Franklin Roosevelt
Democrat

35

PRESIDENT
1945 - 1953
Republican or Democrat?

President Harry Truman
Democrat

36

Give the 3 main aims from the New Deal in 1933, and the president

President Roosevelt
Relief - help stop poverty, give food & stop people loosing their homes
Recovery - boost economy to make jobs
Reform - make sure that there are services in place to help vulnerable people in the future

37

What did the Wagner Act of 1935 allow? Why didn't some people like this?

This allowed working Americans join a trade union. Business owners disliked this because their employees were able to strike and enact a change that would benefit the workers, but not the owners (such as higher wages)

38

Which of these is the correct law? What did it mean?
a) Jim Crow law
b) Jack Cole law
c) Joe Crue law
d) Jake Clan law

a) Jim Crow law
This was part of a series of laws designed to control black people's freedom. For example, "separate but equal" was one - identical places, but one for white people, the other for coloured people.

39

Why was the "separate not equal" policy not equal?

As American society was very racist, black people got the worse side. Also, whote people were in power, so they made their facilities better

40

The "separate but equal" policy was a way to get around what part of the constitution?

"Every man is born equal"

41

Harlem was the black area if New York. True or false?

True

42

How did black Americans contribute to the war effort?

Given most dangerous jobs in Navy (e.g. loading ammo)
Black nurses were hired (although only allowed to treat black soldiers)
Employed to transport supplies, cook and labour
The Tuskegee Airmen were an acclaimed black flying unit, and the 761st Tank Battalion was an all black tank unit too. However, these usually had white officers

43

Which country treated black Americans better in WWII? America or Britain?

Britain

44

How did conscription help black people gain equality in employment?

Mainly white men were being conscripted, along with many black men. This way, black women had to take the jobs previously owned by white Americans, and as a result gained employment and more equality

45

Employment of black people during WWII went from...

50,000 to 2 million - quadrupled

46

Talk about the Washington March

Organised by A. Philip Randolph
During WWII
President Roosevelt created the Executive Order 8802 which stopped discrimination in FEPC (Employment Practices Commission

47

When was the court case of Brown vs Topeka?

1954

48

PRESIDENT
1953 - 1961
Democrat or Republican?

President Dwight Eisenhower
Republican

49

Fill the blanks:
The significance of Brown vs ______ is that the Brown family ___. This meant that black children were able to go to _____ _______, and be more equal.

Topeka
Won
White schools
Equal

50

Give some positives and negatives of the outcomes from the Brown vs Topeka case (and some * facts)

+300,000 black children attended white schools in 1957
+Some areas desegregated
-South still desperate for segregation
-President Eisenhower did little to little to encourage intergration (Until 1957)
-100 senators disagreed
*Took 18 months to decide
*South passed more than 450 laws to prevent it
*Started when 1 black girl from the Brown family wanted to go

51

What happened at Little Rock High? What year was this?

1957. A group of black children were allowed by law (from Brown vs Topeka) to attend a white school, but so many white people in this South protested violently that the black children couldn't get in

52

How was Little Rock High resolved?

President Eisenhower finally took action by sending the federal army to guard and escort the black children. Also, it was shown in the TV, so the people in the North saw just how racist the South were

53

The Montgomery Bus Boycotts were in 1954. True or False?

False - they were in 1955

54

What was the idea behind the Montgomery Bus Boycotts?

Black people stopped going on the bus. That lead to the company losing money

55

When was Rosa Pars arrested? What action was inspired from this?

1955. The Montgomery Bus Boycotts

56

Complete the sentence:
Martin Luther King did not want black people to start...

Violent riots, despite the violence white people showed them. This way, they weren't doing anything wrong and its easier to prove their innocence

57

Fill the blanks:
The significance of the __________ Bus Boycott is that equality for black people became _________ in _________ because of the Brown vs ______ case, so soon racial equality should happen __________

Montgomery
Necessary
Transport
Topeka
Everywhere

58

Martin Luther King led the Montgomery Bus Boycotts. True or False?

True. He acted pretty much immediately after Rosa Parks was arrested

59

What happened when Martin Luther King joined in with black students sitting in white cafes? What year was this?

1960 - They were all arrested

60

When was the protest known as the Freedom Riders? Was Martin Luther King There?

1961 - He supported it but did not go on the buses promoting civil rights

61

Give the definition of stagnation

Showing little activity (mainly in the 1930's)

62

Talk about the following points from the 1930's
a) Consumerism
b) Construction
c) The Crash
d) The Economy

a) Laws made/ revamped to helps consumers more (for example, the Pure Food and Drugs Acts)
b) Part of New Deal to electrify rural areas (20%). Golden Gates & Empire State built. After 1935 more government owned
c) Debt after WWI couldnt be paid by trade, production increased but wages stayed the same
d) recovering from depression - mainly stagnation though

63

Did the income tax rise or fall in the 1940's?

It rose to around 40%

64

Roughly how many houses were built a day in the 1950's? How much did it cost to move house? What was included in the house?

40, costing $100 to move, with fridge & stove & washer

65

The American economy suffered after WWI. True or False?

False - the America was undamaged by the war compared with Europe

66

Which decade were cars becoming more important?

1950's

67

Which decade was poverty particularly bad?
a) 1940's
b) 1950's
c) 1960's
d) 1970's

c) 1960's

68

What was the poor side of the country often referred to as? Why?

"Other America" - as they were mostly completely ignored by the media

69

PRESIDENT
1961 - 1963
Democrat or Republican?

President John Kennedy
Democrat

70

What were 3 of Kennedy's main aims as part of the "New Frontier"? State if they were successful or not

Increase the minimum wage - success
Healthcare for the elderly - failed
Education bill - failed
(many of these weren't successful due to beliefs of the congress and Supreme Court)

71

Who took over presidency when JFK was assassinated?

The vice president - Lyndon Johnson

72

JFK signed the Civil Rights Bill. True or False?

False. He was reculent to, but shortly before his death he delivered a speech for the Civil Rights movement

73

When was the Civil Rights Bill signed?

In 1964 by President Lyndon Johnson

74

PRESIDENT
1963 - 1969
Democrat or Republican?

President Lyndon Johnson
Democrat

75

What policies were in the Civil Rights Bill?

Black people no longer had to pass a literacy test to vote
Black officials allowed
OUTLAWED DISCRIMINATION (however, it was a part of law but change did not take place immediately)

76

Talk about this act from Johnson's Great Society
a) Economic Opportunity Act

1965. Provided money for poor. Poverty went from 20% in 1965 to 12% in 1968

77

Talk about this act from Johnson's Great Society
b) Elementary & Secondary Education Act

1965. The Federal Government can help students from low income families & National Teacher Corps.

78

Talk about this act from Johnson's Great Society
c) Social Security Act Amendments

1965. New healthcare for the elderly and the poor

79

Talk about this act from Johnson's Great Society
d) Broadcasting Act

1967. Provided finance for non-commercial TV & radio (includes Sesame Street)

80

Name some of the acts that came from the aim to keep a good environment from Johnson's Great Society

1967
Air Quality Act
Water Quality Act
Endangered Species Act
National Trails Act
Scenic Rivers Act

81

Talk about this bill from Johnson's Great Society
f) Omnibus Housing Bill

1965. Rent houses for ow income people. Rebuild for poor. HOWEVER, riots in 1967 - wasn't working so well

82

Talk about this act from Johnson's Great Society
g) Immigration Act

1965. Preference no longer given over immigrants - EQUAL

83

PRESIDENT
1969 - 1974
Democrat or Republican?

President Richard Nixon
Republican

84

When was the Watergate scandal? What happened at first?

1972. 5 workers for Nixon broke in to plant bugging devices. However, they did not originally know they worked for Nixon

85

When did Nixon resign?

1974. He was the first president of America to do this - CONSEQUENCES OF THE WATERGATE SCANDAL

86

Give some consequences & their significance of the Watergate Scandal

US constitution worked well - restricted president within law
Confidence in politicians was undermined
USSR used as an example of why capitalism didn't work
Power of government reduced
Nixon's reputation was destroyed (Limits on election campaign costs - Election Campaigns Act 1974, Congress had to approve of sending soldiers abroad - War Powers Act 1973)

87

PRESIDENT
1974 - 1977
Democrat or Republican?

President Gerald Ford
Republican

88

PRESIDENT
1977 - 1981
Democrat or Republican?

President Jimmy Carter
Democrat

89

PRESIDENT
1981 - 1989
Democrat or Republican?

President Ronald Reagan
Republican

90

President Reagan increased the spending on welfare. True or False?

False - he decreased it. This meant people in poverty couldn't get benefits

91

When did the stock market crash?
a) 1977
b) 1985
c) 1987
d) 1990

c) 1987

92

PRESIDENT
1989 - 1993
Democrat or Republican?

President George Bush
Republican

93

PRESIDENT
1993 - 2001
Democrat or Republican?

President Bill Clinton
Democrat

94

Why was Bill Clinton disliked by the public despite what he did?

He had an affair with an office worker - Lewinsky (already had a wife and daughter)

95

How did President Bill Clinton aid the economy? Give 3 points

Reduced the high budget deficit from Reagan
Longest Economic growth period
Trade agreement with Canada and Mexico

96

What was Marshall Aid?

Economic support given by America to aid countries in Europe after WWII (1947) BUT Stalin didn't let USSR or Eastern Europe get involved, as the countries had to have democratically elected governments (not communists)

97

USSR LEADER
1929 - 1953

Stalin

98

USSR LEADER
1955 - 1964

Krushchev

99

USSR LEADER
1985 - 1991

Gorbachev

100

Explain the Domino Theory

If one country falls to communism, all the surrounding countries will too until it spreads to America

101

Who was allied in WWI?

France, Britain, America and the USSR

102

1945 was the end of the first world war, but what happened to the loser - Germany?

It got split up between the allies. Berlin was in the Soviet side

103

Talk about the steps regarding the Berlin Blockade (after the country is split, with Berlin in Soviet Zone)

1) Berlin was also split into 4
2) 1948 - West announces to unite their xones, and seeing this as a threat Stalin cuts off all links to Berlin in June 1948
3) Supplies provided to West by airdrops - not stopped - 275000 flights in total
4) Stalin called of blockade in May 1949
5) August 1961 - USSR built Berlin Wall to stop Easterners moving to better West.

104

When did America enter NATO? Why?

1949. It was a defence alliance between West Europe and America.

105

What did the USSR set up in retaliation to NATO?

The Warsaw Pact of Eastern countries

106

Which leaders were involved in the Cuban Missile Crisis?

Castro - leader of a revolution in Cuba in 1959, ended up the countries leader
JFK - President of America
Khrushchev - Soviet leader

107

When was the Cuban Missile Crisis and how long did it last?

1959 - revolution by Castro in Cuba
1961 - Cuba announced it was communist
1962 - Khrushchev started putting nuclear missiles in Cuba, and Kennedy orders a blockade

108

The deal made between America and the USSR due to the cuban missile crisis had:
a) USA stop storing nuclear weapons in Turkey
b) USSR stop storing nuclear weapons in Cuba
c) Agreed to stop testing some nuclear missiles

All of these, but c) was mainly done with the SALT treaties.

109

Name an example of brikmanship

The Cuban Missile Crisis

110

What were the chemicals used in the Vietnam War by America?

Agent Orange - a weedkiller, destroying the forests the troops hid in
Napalm - an incendiary, used to burn the jungle and it killed people too

111

The North side of Vietnam was democratic supported by America. The South side of Vietnam was communist supported by China. True or false?

False - it's vice versa

112

Who were the leaders regarding the Vietnam War? When did this last from?

North led by Ho Chi Minh
America led by Johnson, but ended a few years after 1969 Nixon Doctrine said they would support democratic countries but wouldn't fight for them.

113

Give some fighting techniques used by the Americans in the Vietnam War

Operation Rolling Thunder - Bombed North 1965-68 (supposed to stop North supplies, but North used "Ho Chi Minh Trial" to give South traitors weapons)
Search and Destroy - helicopters to spot Vietcong villages, burnt villages & killed people - didn't catch many as unsure who the enemy is - made South hate America more

114

Give some Vietcong strengths

Fighting for a cause
Guerrilla tactics (plain clothes)
Support from the South

115

What was the average age of the American soldiers?

19 (cue 80's music)
Meant they were young, inexperienced and not committed.