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Flashcards in Crime and Punishment Deck (60):
1

What are the reasons for crime?

Need
Gain
Influence
Impulse
Belief

2

What are the theories of punishment?

Removal
Deterrence
Rehabilitation
Restitution
Retribution

3

What types of crime are there? (against...)

Against people
Against property
Against authority

4

What was the main reason for crime? (M)

Need - the feudal system left villeins as the poorest. The stole money and food to live

5

Nearly three quarters of crime was theft. True or false? (M)

True. The next most common was murder with almost a fifth

6

Insanity was the most common reason for murder. True or false? (M)

False. Because of an argument was the most common reason. Insanity was never really common because they locked up people who were insane, so they couldn't murder

7

Fill the blanks:
Anglo Saxon law was based on the idea of _______ (blood _____). Simply, the more ______ you did, the more you had to ___. For example, if an ear is injured, 3 _________ must be ____. (M)

Wergild
Money
Damage
Pay
Shillings
Paid

8

Which 4 of these Saxon courts were used in medieval England?
a) Shire courts b) Hamlet courts
c) Royal courts d) Hundred courts
e) Public courts f) The King's court
g) County courts h) Private courts

a) Shire courts - for serious crimes with nobles and judges that met twice a year
c) Royal courts - Also for serious crimes, but involving lords. f) The King's court is an example of a Royal court
d) Hundred courts - weren't as serious + tithings
h) Private courts - owned by the landowner with local laws, and the landowner is the judge.

9

Define tithings (M)

Self help. A group of 10 men over 12 would go to court and if one was proved responsible, then they all would face the punishment.

10

Were you guilty if you were accused and didn't turn up to court? (M)

Yes

11

An oath helpless was when... (M)

Someone swore that they were guilty/ innocent

12

Give some methods of ordeal. (M)

Trial by hot iron
Trial by cold water
Trial by combat
God would support and help the innocent

13

Fill the blanks:
In 12__, the Pope decided that _______ in England must not use trial by ______. As a result, they were replaced with ______. (M)

1215
Priests
Ordeal
Juries

14

Explain the stages of the hue and cry. (M)

When someone witnessed a crime, they would call out for help. The whole village then searched for the criminal whatever/ whenever the cry started. This was led by the CONSTABLES, who were local, untrained volunteers that led the Watch at day. The CORONERS of the county would swear the victim and the suspects. They then got the SHERIFF, who tracked the criminal. They got help from the POSSE who anyone over 15 chosen to help. Meanwhile, the criminal could get SANCTUARY in a church, where they could stay for 40 days without being taken out before deciding between exhile or trial

15

Attitudes to crime (M)

God and the saints controlled their lives, so they wanted to go to heaven (deterred from crime because of hell) to please God.

16

What was the main cause of crime? (T)

Belief because of the monarchs religion, often those with the opposite belief were then criminals. Poverty was still big so need as well

17

Mary 1 was a protestant. True or false? (T)

False, she was a strong catholic and despised protestants

18

Which monarchs were catholic? (T)

Henry VII
Henry VIII (then reformed)
Mary I
Charles II (secretly)
James II
William III (forced)

19

When was the interregnum? (T)

1649 - 1660. After Charles I beheaded and before Charles |I made king by parliament in 1660

20

The gunpowder plot was in 1605, against Charles I. True or false? (T)

False. It was in 1605 against James II

21

Which monarchs faced inflation? (T)

Edward VI, Elizabeth I and Mary I. Because the coins were cheaper to make, prices went up

22

When were the Pilgrim fathers? (T)

1620

23

Why did Parliament refuse Charles I? (T)

He got money illegally. Charles also tried to arrest 5 MP's, and disliked parliament a lot

24

Which monarchs were protestant? (T)

Henry VIII (reformed to be a protestant)
Edward VI
Elizabeth I
James I
Charles I (puritan)
Oliver Cromwell

25

What is it called when a crime is against: (T)
a) God
b) The monarch

a) Heresy
b) Treason

26

Who was Matthew Hopkins? (T)

Witch hunter during Civil Wars. Died 1647. Caught around 230 witches. Despite belief he was accused a witch and killed, he died from an illness

27

Religion mattered less in the 1600's. True or false? (T)

False. It mattered less in the 1700's.

28

When was The Enlightenment (roughly)? (T)

1700's. People became more tolerant (mainly of religion)

29

Who were the JP's? (T)

Justice of the Peace. Trained people with handbooks (so they used the law and not their judgement).

30

Bridgewell hospital was made to help who? (T)

Vagrants. Established in 1553

31

In 1533, a law stated that unemployed men found wandering would be... (T)

Whipped and returned to their house/ where they were born

32

What was the bloody code? Why did juries not use it often? (T)

Punishment by public hanging. Worked as a deterrence. The juries did not think it was fair

33

Which time period was printing invented?

The Tudors (T)

34

When did urbanisation occur? (I)

1801 - 1881

35

What was the main reason for crime? (I)

Need. Families grew along with the population, and people needed money and food to live

36

Smuggling was a popular crime because... (I)

Prices were increasing. Tea, brandy and dry goods were mostly smuggled (tea being the most)

37

Highwaymen became popular for what reasons? (I)

Travel became increasingly popular as vagrancy was no longer an issue. Large areas of land without patrol were great places to steal from uncaught.

38

Fill the blanks: (I)
In ____, the ________ brothers increase _____ patrol in London to deter crime. The also established the ___ ______ _______ who took from thieves. Also they made the ___ & ___ newspaper

1805
Fielding
Horse
Bow Street Runners
Hue & Cry

39

Robert Peel became Home Secretary in 1822. What else did he do? (I)

Created the police force. The Metropolitian Police in London was set up in 1829 with 3200 men, and by 1884 there were 39000 police in Britain

40

Why did the police have a bad reputation? (I)

It was believed that they murdered people, did not follow the law and were useless against crime (a baton is no good against a gun). Over time, they gained a better reputation

41

Why was the bloody code was abolished? (I)

Public executions were becoming celebrations, it wasn't fair and juries weren't keeping the bloody code anyway

42

Transportation was not popular in this period. True or false? (I)

False, criminals were sent off to Australia. Often, the criminals couldn't buy their way back home so lived there

43

Pros and cons of transportation. (I)

+ courts prepared, Australia was British, criminals reformed there and less crime in Britain
- cost a lot (by 1830's 0.5 mil a year), crime increased in Britain, native Australians protested, gold rush in Australia in 1851

44

Why did prisons need reforming? (I)

Health, debt and fee issues

45

Who were the main people that reformed prisons? (I)

Elizabeth Fry (more philanthropy, liked by the Queen) and John Howard (made laws)

46

What were the 2 parliamentary acts that reformed prisons? What year? (I)

John Howard made acts abolishing jailers fees and one enforced hygiene. 1774

47

What did Victorians think about: (I)
a) Oliver Twist
b) Prostitution
c) Murder

a) The upper class disliked it because it made them look evil and there were societies of criminals
b) Hated it
c) Terrified of it - papers made it seem as if everyone was being murdered but in 1850 you were more likely to be killed by a close family member

48

Fill the blanks: (N)
It is no longer ____ which leads to crime, rather changes in __________ which influences us to be more _______. Also, the __________ have changed the causes of crime because they have changed what's ________ as a crime

Need
Technology
Selfish
Government
Regarded

49

Name 4 common crimes (N)

Computer crime, car crime, hooliganism and terrorism

50

Did people trust the police in the 1960's? (N)

Yes

51

Label the specialised police methods of combating crime to a suitable crime(s). (N)
a) Detection (DNA)
b) Computers
c) Specialisation
d) Transport
e) Weapons
f) Communication

a) Murders and theft
b) Storing details for all crimes
c) Terrorism
d) Car crime
e) Violent riots
f) All

52

How does the neighbourhood watch help? (N)

Deterrence, police don't need to patrol so can focus on other things

53

What does remand mean? (N)

When awaiting a trial, the person waits in jail

54

Prison is more about removal. True or false? (N)

False. Although removal is there, it is more about rehabilitation now than before

55

Prisoners today: (N)

Have longer sentences
Are rewarded with money/ more family time
Kept healthy
There are lots of them

56

What was the main reason for crime? (N)

Gain

57

What was the main reason for crime? (I)

Need

58

Why wouldn't the Hue and Cry work today?

Because in the middle ages, everyone knew each other. Now, most people wouldn't have a clue who they were looking for and wouldn't be there

59

Who led the Gunpowder plot? (T)

Robert Catesby

60

When did the Luddites start a revolution?

1812 - 1813