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Flashcards in Medieval History Deck (57)
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1

What are peasants also known as?

Villeins, serfs, labourers kinda

2

How did the Black Death spread?

Bubonic - fleas
Pneumonic - coughing
Septisemic - blood - wouldn't write that though
They believed they had disappointed God, and it was his punishment. Also, they believed that the smell spread it too

3

Why was Aquitaine confiscated from Edward III?

Edward harboured Robert of Artois from Phillip of France, so Phillip confiscated Aquitaine. Edward III was a vassal, not a king there

4

The church was...

An instrument of the state, used to scare people into being good otherwise they'd go to hell e.g. Doom paintings

5

3 quarters of women married before what age?
a) 24
b) 19
c) 16
d) 21

b) 19

6

What was the significance of overseas possessions of English Kings relating to the 100 years war?

The significance of English possessions starting the 100 years war with France was that France were restricted because England owned most of it. France wanted independence.

7

What was the relationship between France and Scotland and why was it made? (Year?)

The Auld Alliance, 1295. They both were protecting each other from England invading, as two forces North and South was a big threat to England

8

Fill the blanks:
The significance of Isabella of ______ in starting the 100 years war was that through her, her son - ______ III - had a claim to the ______ throne too, because his mother was a ________ in ______. Also, she established a strong _______ with her husband King ______ II, capable enough to take part in ________ ____.

France
Edward III
French
Princess
France
England
Edward II
Overseas wars

9

What did Edward III want?

He wanted Scotland, but knew he would have to get France first because they protected each other

10

Why did Edward III like the wool trade, and dislike Phillip for getting rid of it?

Because he earned taxes from the wool trade

11

List the allies of
a) Edward III of England
b) Phillip VI of France

a) Louis IV of the Holy Roman Empire - because he was offered money from England and the Pope sided with France.
Flanders - He too was interested in the wool trade despite supposed to be loyal to Phillip
b) David Bruce of Scotland - got support from France when England declared someone else king of Scotland in 1332, David made king in 1329

12

What tactic is...
a) Open battle
b) Siege
c) Attrition
d) Chevauchee

a) Traditional battle. + Quick & scares enemy - costs a lot
b) Force a surrender by cutting off supplies into town + scares soldiers & civilians - costs, ages
c) Gradually wearing enemy with short battles + reinforcements - ages
d) Attack in enemy territory & run. + not many, quick, scary to the enemy - led by Black Prince in Battle of Crecy

13

What was the first battle in the 100 years war?

Battle of Sluys - sea battle in 1340. England won.

14

Who was the Black Prince?

Son of the king, leader of the chevauchee tactic in the battle of Crecy, which he won

15

When did Phillip VI die and who took his place?

1350, his successor being King John II. he was captured later on in the battle of Poitiers 1356

16

Which are the correct policies from the Treaty of Bretigny, 1360?
1) King John gave up any claims on Aquitaine
2) Edward was paid a ransom of 3 million gold crowns to set King John free
3) The Auld alliance was forcibly abandoned
4) Even though he won, Edward III gave up his claim upon the French throne
5) The Auld Alliance must be disbanded
6) Edward III got into Ponthiem - Calais and an Enlarged Aquitaine as a king, not a vassal

1) King John gave up any claims on Aquitaine
2) Edward was paid a ransom of 3 million gold crowns to set King John free
4) Even though he won, Edward III gave up his claim upon the French throne
6) Edward III got into Ponthiem - Calais and an Enlarged Aquitaine as a king, not a vassal

17

How much did the population decrease due to the Black Death in 1349?

Over half (4.8 million to 2.5 million)

18

What did the Statute of Labourers Act in 1351 state? Why was it bad?

This made it illegal for employees to pay wages above the level payed in 1346. This was a problem because the Black Death wiped out many, so families needed more money to survive

19

When was there a poll tax made? Who made sure these were collected?

1381. The king's commissioners - who weren't afraid to use force

20

The priest John Ball was arrested because he said peasants should kill their lords. True or false?

False. He said the peasants were just as good as lords

21

Who led the peasants revolt? When?

Wat Tyler, in 1381

22

What is serfdom?

Serfdom is the position in the feudal system were they are a labourer

23

Where and when was the Wat Tyler meeting King Richard II?

Smithfield, June 14th 1381

24

Who manipulated King Richard II?

The archbishops, as he was fairly young

25

Did the Peasants Revolt achieve anything?

Yes, the poll tax was abolished. However, Wat Tyler and many others involved in the Peasants revolt were killed.

26

When was King John captured?

1356, at the Battle of Poitiers

27

What was The Black Prince actually called?

Edward IV (I know right...)

28

The Black Prince became the Prince of ... when he was...

Wales, age 16 (General in Battle of Crecy that year)

29

When did The Black Prince and Edward III die?

1376 and 1377 respectively

30

What happened at the battle of Neville's Cross? What year was this?

1346. King David of Scotland was captured and the English won

31

The years and a bit about the Battle of:
a) Sluys
b) Crecy
c) Calais
d) Poitiers

a) 1340. A sea battle. England won.
b) 1346. Chevauchee led by The Black Prince. England won
c) September 1346 - August 1347. Siege. England won and gained a good strategic point in France
d) 1356. Led by Edward III, King John was captured. England Won

32

What is the fancy scientific name for the plague germ? (Not necessary, but sounds better and shows detailed knowledge if used)

Yersinia Pestis

33

Who were the Lollards?

A group of people questionning religion, saying how the feudal system isn't part of the catholic church

34

What were women seen as in the 14th Century?

Property - of their father then their husband

35

Why did King Richard originally try and create the poll tax?

To fund the French wars overseas. But the people weren't having it, so the peasants revolt began

36

Roughly how many people died during the plague?

Around a third of the population, or around a million
Also, the majority of priests died too, as they were around the dead more than others, so were easily contaminated

37

For those who weren't exactly sure it was God punishing them with the plague (as they had done everything that priests had told them), what did slightly more educated people think spread the plague?

The smell. As smell of disease is just smelling the harmful bacteria (and as they breathe it in, they will get it), they weren't entirely wrong

38

What factors aided the spread of the Black Death?

A hot summer in 1348
Bad sanitation
Shared water & lived in close areas
Incubation period (when carries bacteria but symptoms not yet showing) there when people ran away to another settlement, and spread it there

39

What were the main characteristics of life in 14th century England (14th century England) - what topics would you talk about?

English society in the 14th century
Importance of the church
Importance of the wool trade
Position of women rich & poor

40

What factors led to the outbreak of the 100 Years' War? (Cause of the 100 Years' War) - what topics would you talk about?

Overseas possessions of English Kings
Relations between France and Scotland
Isabella of France
Edward III's Claim
Role of Phillip of France
Confiscation of Aquitaine
Edward III's Aims

41

What events shaped the course of the 100 Years' Wars? (Course of the war) - what topics would you talk about?

Alliances
Tactics - Chevauchees, Long Bow
Battles of Crecy (chevauchee), Calais (siege), Poitiers (battle)
Role of the Black Prince
Treaty of Bretigny

42

What was the short term impact of the Black Death upon society? (The Black Death) - what topics would you talk about?

Arrival of the Black Death
Immediate impact
Strains of Plague
Contemporary views
Progress of the Plague
Factors aiding the spread

43

How important were the longer term consequences of the Black Death? (Legacy of the Black Death) - what topics would you talk about?

Population decrease
Labour shortages
Statute of Labourers
Effects on survivors - wages & rents
Art and medicine

44

What long term and short term factors led to the Peasants' Revolt in 1381? (Peasant discontent) - what topics would you talk about?

Effects of the Black Death
Issue of Serfdom
Religious ideas
John Ball
French Wars
The Poll Tax - to pay for above
Role of Wat Tyler
Events of May - June 1381

45

What was the significance of the Peasants' Revolt? (The Peasant's Revolt) - what topics would you talk about?

King Richard's Broken promises
Poll tax
Control of wages
Decline of serfdom and the position of Peasants
Effects on the 100 Years' Wars

46

What happened to John Ball after the Black Death?

He was hung drawn and quartered

47

Why were doom paintings the best way to portray religious ideas?

Because the majority of people were illiterate, couldn't read or write, so paintings were shown so people could understand

48

Talk briefly about villeins in the 14th century

They were tied to the lords land but had to ask to leave the land
Had to ask lord's permission to marry
Had to work on the lord's and church's land for free some days
Only could be educated through church, most illiterate
POOR!!

49

Talk about women in the 14th century

They were property - belonged to their father then husband
Written out of history books (and history books only written by males)
Rich women often had arranged marriages
Had to have kids
Couldn't divorce
Couldn't marry without parent's consent (or lord's if serf)
Majority lived in the countryside (9/10, but don't know if that's right)
Sinners in church's eyes (Eve in bible)
Rich women lived easier & often longer
Looked after house, but also worked as farmers/ weavers - wool trade help

50

What causes of the 100 Year's war were England's fault?

Harbouring Robert of Artois
Wanting the French Throne - Edward III called himself the King of France
Avoided? paying homage for Aquitaine
He was earning LOTS from Aquitaine wine industry

51

What causes of the 100 Year's war were France's fault?

Harbouring David Bruce/ David II of Scotland
Would't let Edward III be King of France, despite Phillip being a cousin or kinda distant relative of the previous king. Isabella of France only surviving heir from her 4 brothers, so her son Edward III made more sense, but they passed Salic Law so he couldn't be crowned
Confiscating Aquitaine
Banned/ disrupted wool trade in Flanders

52

What were King Phillip VI's overall aims?

To reduce the power and influence of the English monarch
One way he did this was by harbouring David Bruce/ David II Scotland, as interfering with English affairs

53

Why did King Phillip VI disrupt the wool trade in Flanders?

To disrupt his economic power. However, Edward only reasserted his claim on the English throne

54

IN the siege of Calais, what mistake did the French make?

They retreated when the English didn't back down

55

In the Battle of Crecy (chevauchee), what else helped England win

Probably crossbows, but
They had a good vantage point uphill

56

What spread the plague?

Bubonic - FLEAS not rats
Pneumonic - coughing

57

What factors helped spread the Black Death?

Poor sanitation
Hot summer
Couldn't isolate people
Bubonic (fleas) and pneumonic (coughing)
People running away during the incubation period, then contaminating the next settlement