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Flashcards in GI-1 Gut Tube Deck (20):
1

1. Compare and contrast GI tract junctions. Which of the following is FALSE or MISMATCHED?

A. esophagus-stomach junction -- abrupt change of lining epithelium from stratified squamous to simple columnar

B. pyloro-duodenal junction -- goblet cells line both the stomach and the small intestine but only the
duodenum has mucus-secreting glands in the submucosa

C. ileo-cecal junction -- goblet and absorptive cells line both mucosae but only the small intestine has villi

D. recto-anal junction -- simple columnar lining epithelium is replaced by stratified squamous epithelium

B. pyloro-duodenal junction -- goblet cells line both the stomach and the small intestine but only the
duodenum has mucus-secreting glands in the submucosa

2

2. Which of the following is MISMATCHED?

A. parietal cells -- secrete HCl in gastric glands
B. gastric chief cells -- secrete pepsinogen in gastric glands
C. gastric epithelial stem cells -- located at the base of gastric glands
D. gastric pits -- lined with mucous surface cells
E. Paneth cells -- secrete lysozyme in glands of the small intestine

C. gastric epithelial stem cells -- located at the base of gastric glands

3

3. An important histologic characteristic of the distal small intestine (ileum) is the

A. absence of villi from the luminal surface
B. concentration of outer smooth muscle layer into bands
C. aggregation of lymphatic nodules in the mucosa and submucosa
D. presence of submucosal glands that drain into the crypts of Lieberkuhn

C. aggregation of lymphatic nodules in the mucosa and submucosa

4

4. A histologic slide of a transverse section through the duodenum shows large cells with large euchromatic nuclei and prominent nucleoli between two layers of smooth muscle that are oriented at right angles to one another. The large cells are:

A. enteroendocrine cells that secrete regulatory peptides
B. Paneth cells that secrete bactericidal enzymes
C. primordial cells that migrate into the epithelium to form stem cells
D. neurons of the myenteric plexus that innervate the muscularis externa
E. lymphocytes that have undergone blastic transformation

D. neurons of the myenteric plexus that innervate the muscularis externa

5

5. Replicating populations of gastrointestinal epithelial cells are located
A. in the crypt-villus junction in the jejunum
B. in the basal one-third of the crypt in the colon
C. at the free surface of the esophagus
D. uniformly over the surface of the gastric pit
E. in the base of the fundic glands of the stomach

B. in the basal one-third of the crypt in the colon

6

6. Which is TRUE? The wall of the esophagus:

A. Is lined by both minimally keratinized stratified squamous and simple columnar epithelia

B. Contains both striated and smooth muscle fibers in both the muscularis mucosae and muscularis externa

C. Contains glands both in the mucosa and the submucosa

D. Has two layers in the muscularis mucosae: one circular and one longitudinal

E. Is covered by a serosa throughout most of its length

C. Contains glands both in the mucosa and the submucosa

7

7. Consider Peyer's patches. Which is TRUE?

A. They are found in the ileum
B. Each patch includes many lymphoid nodules
C. The epithelium covering each nodule within a patch lacks villi
D. The dome epithelium contains M cells, but few if any goblet cells
E. All the above

E. All the above

8

8. In the gastric mucosa:

A. The glands with the deepest pits are in the cardiac region
B. Surface mucous cells secrete a highly acidic mucus
C. There are permanent folds called rugae
D. Some cell types have an exocrine secretory function, while others have an endocrine secretory function
E. The parietal cells are among the least metabolically active cells in the body

D. Some cell types have an exocrine secretory function, while others have an endocrine secretory function

9

9. Stem cells of the intestinal epithelium give rise to:
A. Brunner’s glands
B. Enteroendocrine cells (DNES cells)
C. Paneth cells
D. Intestinal absorptive cells (enterocytes)
E. All the above

E. All the above

10

10. Paneth cells:
A. Are highly eosinophilic because they contain many mitochondria
B. Are found mainly in fundic stomach
C. Are most common on villi
D. Secrete lysozyme
E. Are a type of enteroendocrine cell

D. Secrete lysozyme

11

11. The appendix:
A. Has villi
B. Has taeniae coli
C. Contains compound tubuloacinar glands
D. Contains M cells in its surface epithelium
E. Has plicae circulares

D. Contains M cells in its surface epithelium

12

12. Intestinal absorptive cells (enterocytes):
A. Take up chylomicrons from the gut lumen by phagocytosis
B. Breakdown chylomicrons in secondary lysosomes
C. Synthesize triacylglycerols in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum
D. Release fatty acids into the lamina propria by exocytosis
E. All the above

C. Synthesize triacylglycerols in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum

13

13. Which is correct? At the junction:

A. between the pharynx and the esophagus there is an abrupt change from maximally to minimally keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
B. between the esophagus and stomach there is an abrupt change from skeletal to smooth in the muscularis externa
C. between the stomach and small intestine there is an anatomical sphincter in the muscularis externa
D. between the small and large intestine the outer longitudinal layer of muscularis externa is completely lost
E. None of the above is correct.

C. between the stomach and small intestine there is an anatomical sphincter in the muscularis externa

14

14. Which of the following cells is characterized by intracellular canaliculi lined by numerous microvilli:

A. enterocyte
B. surface mucous cell
C. chief cell of the stomach
D. parietal cell
E. goblet cell

D. parietal cell

15

15. Which of the following cells produces intrinsic factor?
A. enterocyte
B. surface mucous cell
C. chief cell of the stomach
D. parietal cell
E. goblet cell

D. parietal cell

16

16. The fundic stomach normally has all the following EXCEPT:

A. Stem cells located at the base of the glands
B. Pits that are lined by surface mucous cells
C. Enteroendocrine cells (DNES cells) that secrete into the lamina propria
D. Glands that contain parietal cells and chief cells
E. A thicker mucosa than the pyloric or cardiac stomach

A. Stem cells located at the base of the glands

17

17. Identify the FALSE statement about the colon:

A. Goblet cells are more abundant than in the small intestine
B. The inner layer of the muscularis externa is discontinuous or very thin, forming the taeniae coli
C. There are no villi
D. Intestinal glands (crypts of Lieberkuhn) lie in the mucosa
E. The transverse colon has a serosa rather than an adventitia

B. The inner layer of the muscularis externa is discontinuous or very thin, forming the taeniae coli

18

18. Which is the FALSE statement about intestinal villi?
A. They are permanent structures
B. They contain submucosa in their core
C. They contain lymphatic capillaries called lacteals which are involved in absorption of
dietary fat
D. They contain fenestrated capillaries

B. They contain submucosa in their core

19

19. Which of the following characteristics would definitely allow you to identify a tissue sample as being from the colon?
A. The longitudinal muscle of the muscularis externae is thin or absent except for three thick longitudinal strips
B. Intestinal glands (crypts of Lieberkuhn) open into the base of pits
C. All of the cells on the luminal surface are goblet cells
D. There is an abrupt transition from simple columnar to stratified squamous epithelium
E. The outer layer is an adventitia

A. The longitudinal muscle of the muscularis externae is thin or absent except for three thick longitudinal strips

20

20. Which portion of the GI tract has the deepest pits, has short, coiled glands that are located only in the mucosa, and lacks villi?
A. cardiac stomach
B. fundic stomach
C. pyloric stomach
D. duodenum
E. jejunum

C. pyloric stomach