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Histo Exam 2 > Endocrine > Flashcards

Flashcards in Endocrine Deck (20):
1

1. Mast cells release histamine that acts locally on endothelial cells to make them leaky.
This type of secretion is called:
A. apocrine
B. cytocrine
C. eccrine
D. holocrine
E. paracrine

E. paracrine

2

2. T-helper lymphocytes release IL-2 that binds to IL-2 receptors on the surface of the Thelper lymphocytes. This type of secretion is called:
A. autocrine
B. cytocrine
C. eccrine
D. endocrine
E. paracrine

A. autocrine

3

3. Which of the following events is required to stimulate secretion of stored proteins?

A. influx of Na+ into the cytoplasm
B. increase of cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations
C. release of stored ATP from mitochondria
D. cleavage of a signal peptide from the stored protein
E. release of elementary particles stored in mitochondria

B. increase of cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations

4

4. A cell that is a high-level regulated secretor of a glycosylated protein product is likely to have each of the following, EXCEPT:
A. nucleolus
B. RER
C. Golgi apparatus
D. mitochondria with vesicular cristae
E. stored secretory granules

D. mitochondria with vesicular cristae

5

5. A cell that is a high-level constitutive secretor of a steroid hormone is likely to have each of the following, EXCEPT:
A. nucleolus
B. cytoplasmic lipid droplets
C. mitochondria with vesicular cristae
D. stored secretory granules
E. SER

D. stored secretory granules

6

6. A cell that is a high-level constitutive secretor of a glycosylated protein product is likely to have each of the following, EXCEPT:
A. nucleolus
B. RER
C. Golgi apparatus
D. mitochondria with shelf-like cristae
E. stored secretory granules

E. stored secretory granules

7

7. Water-soluble hormones and intercellular mediators bind to __________ receptors that then use __________________ to effect cellular changes that are ___________ in terms of response time.

A. cell-surface; second messengers; rapid
B. intracellular; second messengers; rapid
C. cell-surface; changes in gene transcription; delayed
D. intracellular; changes in gene transcription; delayed
E. None of the above

A. cell-surface; second messengers; rapid

8

8. Many lipid-soluble hormones (such as steroid and thyroid hormones) bind to __________ receptors that then use __________________ to effect cellular changes that are ___________ in terms of response time.

A. cell-surface; second messengers; rapid
B. intracellular; second messengers; rapid
C. cell-surface; changes in gene transcription; delayed
D. intracellular; changes in gene transcription; delayed
E. None of the above

D. intracellular; changes in gene transcription; delayed

9

9. Each of the following is TRUE concerning the adenohypophysis, EXCEPT:

A. secretory activity is controlled by the hypothalamus
B. developed from ectoderm of stomodeum (Rathke's pouch)
C. source of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
D. secretes hormones synthesized in the hypothalamus

D. secretes hormones synthesized in the hypothalamus

10

10. Releasing hormones are conveyed from the ______________ to the ____________________ by the ___________________ veins.

A. hypothalamus; adenohypophysis; hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal
B. hypothalamus; neurohypophysis; hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal
C. hypothalamus; adenohypophysis; hypothalamo-hypophyseal
D. hypothalamus; neurohypophysis; hypothalamo-hypophyseal
E. None of the above

A. hypothalamus; adenohypophysis; hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal

11

11. Thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone or TSH) is synthesized and secreted by
which cell?
A. neurosecretory neuron of neurohypophysis
B. acidophil of adenohypophysis
C. basophil of adenohypophysis
D. thyroid follicular cell
E. thyroid C cell

C. basophil of adenohypophysis

12

12. Which of the following is MISMATCHED or INCORRECT?

A. acidophil of adenohypophysis : mammotroph (lactotroph)
B. basophil of adenohypophysis : corticotroph
C. chromophobe of adenohypophysis : gonadotroph
D. vascular sinusoid of adenohypophysis : secondary capillary bed lined by fenestrated endothelium
E. prolactin inhibitory factor/hormone : dopamine

C. chromophobe of adenohypophysis : gonadotroph

13

13. ACTH is released from the ____________ of the ___________ and stimulates the growth and secretory activity of ______________ of the adrenal cortex.

A. basophils; anterior pituitary; the zona fascicularis and zona reticularis
B. acidophils; anterior pituitary; all layers
C. basophils; posterior pituitary; the zona fascicularis and zona reticularis
D. acidophils; posterior pituitary; all layers
E. None of the above is correct

A. basophils; anterior pituitary; the zona fascicularis and zona reticularis

14

14. Which of the following is TRUE concerning the neurohypophysis?

A. contains oxytocin which is manufactured in the hypothalamus
B. develops from ectoderm of the primitive oral cavity (stomodeum)
C. controlled by hypothalamic releasing factors
D. 40% of its parenchymal cells are acidophils

A. contains oxytocin which is manufactured in the hypothalamus

15

15. Herring bodies are:

A. eosinophilic accumulations within the cytoplasm of pituicytes that surround the axons of the neurosecretory neurons located within the neurohypophysis

B. collections of secretory vesicles containing oxytocin and/or vasopressin found along and at the ends of axons of neurosecretory neurons of the neurohypophysis

C. basophilic cytoplasmic inclusions that result from an inability of a pituitary basophil to release its secretory product

D. an artifact

B. collections of secretory vesicles containing oxytocin and/or vasopressin found along and at the ends of axons of neurosecretory neurons of the neurohypophysis

16

16. Parafollicular cells of the thyroid:

A. synthesize thyroglobulin
B. are both endocrine and exocrine in function
C. are stimulated by increased levels of plasma calcium
D. secrete thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)
E. sequester bits of colloid material during secretory activity

C. are stimulated by increased levels of plasma calcium

17

17. Follicular cells of the thyroid:

A. secrete thyroglobulin into the colloid of the follicle after its iodination within the cytoplasm of the follicular cell
B. become columnar in shape with decreased activity of the thyroid (colloid being stored)
C. are directly stimulated by releasing hormones of hypothalamus
D. secrete thyrocalcitonin
E. function as an endocrine gland by the lysosomal digestion of iodinated thyroglobulin and release of T3 and T4 into the surrounding connective tissue

E. function as an endocrine gland by the lysosomal digestion of iodinated thyroglobulin and release of T3 and T4 into the surrounding connective tissue

18

18. Spongiocytes of the __________________ secrete cortisol and androgens. These cells have extensive SER, many cytoplasmic lipid droplets, and mitochondria with vesicular cristae.

A. zona glomerulosa
B. zona fasciculata
C. zona reticularis
D. adrenal medulla

B. zona fasciculata

19

19. Regulation of secretion from the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex is mostly via:

A. the release of ACTH from the anterior pituitary
B. the renin-angiotensin system
C. aldosterone
D. plasma K+ levels
E. both "B" and "D" above

E. both "B" and "D" above

20

20. The medulla of the adrenal (suprarenal) gland:

A. cells have mitochondria with tubular cristae
B. secretes mineralocorticoids (aldosterone)
C. receives a dual blood supply (arterial & venous blood)
D. secretes glucocorticoids (cortisol)
E. "A" and "C" are both correct

C. receives a dual blood supply (arterial & venous blood)