GI-2 Digestive Glands Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in GI-2 Digestive Glands Deck (20):
1

1. The parotid gland:

A. Lacks striated ducts
B. Is a simple tubuloacinar gland
C. Contains numerous serous demilunes
D. None of the above

D. None of the above

2

2. Which of the following salivary glands produces ONLY a serous product?
A. sublingual
B. submandibular
C. parotid
D. both A and B
E. both B and C

C. parotid

3

3. Radiation therapy for oral cancer damaged a patient's salivary glands and greatly reduced the volume of his salivary output. As a result, he subsequently experienced
excessive tooth decay (dental caries). Which of the following properties of saliva is normally most important in preventing the formation of caries?

A. saliva moistens food, minimizing abrasion
B. amylase breaks down starch into sugars
C. lysozyme controls the bacterial flora in the mouth
D. saliva extracts phosphorous from enamel

C. lysozyme controls the bacterial flora in the mouth

4

4. Serous demilunes can be found in which of the following glands?
A. sublingual
B. submandibular
C. parotid
D. both A and B
E. both B and C

D. both A and B

5

5. Myoepithelial cells are found in each of the following, EXCEPT:
A. sublingual gland
B. submandibular gland
C. parotid
D. exocrine pancreas
E. apocrine gland, secretory portion

D. exocrine pancreas

6

6. Intercalated ducts may be found in which of the following?
A. sublingual gland
B. submandibular gland
C. parotid
D. exocrine pancreas
E. All of the above.

E. All of the above.

7

7. Acinar cells of the exocrine pancreas:
A. secrete bicarbonate-rich fluid
B. contain zymogen granules in their apical region
C. form numerous serous demilunes applied to mucous acini
D. are eosinophilic at their base
E. form the islets of Langerhans

B. contain zymogen granules in their apical region

8

8. A variety of cell types are capable of transporting IgA across an epithelial barrier by the process of transcytosis, resulting in the release of secretory IgA into the gut lumen. Which of the following cell types DOES NOT carry out transcytosis?

A. enerocytes (absorptive cells) of the intestine
B hepatocytes
C. plasma cells
D. salivary gland acinar cells

C. plasma cells

9

9. Each of the following is a characteristic of the pancreas, EXCEPT for:
A. centroacinar cells
B. islets of Langerhans
C. striated ducts
D. intercalated ducts
E. veins that drain into the portal vein

C. striated ducts

10

10. Consider the endocrine pancreas.
A. beta cells secrete insulin
B. alpha cells secrete glucagon
C. alpha cells secrete insulin
D. beta cells secrete glucagons
E. both A and B are correct

E. both A and B are correct

11

11. Kupffer cells:
A. are deeply eosinophilic due to large numbers of mitochondria
B. elaborate pepsinogen
C. are located predominantly within hepatic sinusoids
D. contain bile canaliculi
E. are found within the perisinusoidal space (of Disse)

C. are located predominantly within hepatic sinusoids

12

12. The classical hepatic lobule is characterized by all of the following EXCEPT:
A. corners contain branches of the portal vein, hepatic artery and bile duct
B. a central vein constitutes the central axis
C. polygonal (sometimes hexagonal) appearance
D. portal triad constitutes the central axis
E. blood flows from the periphery of the lobule to a central vein via sinusoids

D. portal triad constitutes the central axis

13

13. Which of the following statements concerning bile canaliculi is correct?

A. They are the site at which lipoproteins are secreted by hepatocytes
B. They form between adjacent hepatocytes and are bounded by junctional complexes
C. They are the space between the hepatic cell and the sinusoidal endothelium
D. They drain into the terminal hepatic venule
E. They are lined by simple squamous epithelium

B. They form between adjacent hepatocytes and are bounded by junctional complexes

14

14. A liver acinus (of Rappaport):

A. has a central vein at its center
B. has a portal canal at its center
C. is based on the pattern of bile flow
D. is divided into zones that have different levels of metabolic activity and different exposures to toxins
E. None of the above.

D. is divided into zones that have different levels of metabolic activity and different exposures to toxins

15

15. The blood supply of the liver:

A. comes mainly from the hepatic artery
B. exits from the liver via the portal vein
C. flows from the periphery to the center of a portal lobule
D. is mainly derived from the venous drainage of the GI tract, pancreas and spleen
E. enters and leaves the liver at the porta hepatic

D. is mainly derived from the venous drainage of the GI tract, pancreas and spleen

16

16. The gall bladder:

A. concentrates bile by actively transporting sodium ions into its lumen
B. contracts in response to cholecystokinin (CCK) released from diffuse neuroendocrine cells (DNES) cells in the duodenum
C. contracts in response to somatostatin released from DNES cells in the duodenum
D. expels bile into the cystic duct when the skeletal muscle in the gall bladder's muscularis contracts
E. has a well-developed muscularis mucosae

B. contracts in response to cholecystokinin (CCK) released from diffuse neuroendocrine cells (DNES) cells in the duodenum

17

17. The endothelial cells of the liver sinusoids:
A. are also called Kupffer cells
B. are in contact with the space of Disse
C. form continuous capillaries
D. line the bile canaliculi
E. store large amounts of vitamin A

B. are in contact with the space of Disse

18

18. Each of the following is a function of normal hepatocytes, EXCEPT:

A. conversion of cholesterole to bile salts
B. conjugation of biliruben (from breakdown of the heme from hemoglobin) to make it water-soluble
C. secretion of bile salts into bile canaliculi
D. uptake of bile salts from the space of Disse as part of the enterohepatic circulation
E. uptake of bilirubin from the bile canaliculi

E. uptake of bilirubin from the bile canaliculi

19

19. Unconjugated bilirubin exits the spleen as a result of breakdown of aged RBCs. If you could sample blood from each of the following vessels associated with a normal
liver, you would be most likely to find unconjugated bilirubin in the sample from the:

A. portal vein
B. hepatic vein
C. hepatic artery
D. central veins

A. portal vein

20

20. Each of the following may be found in the gall bladder, EXCEPT for:
A. adventitia
B. lamina propria
C. submucosa
D. serosa
E. simple columnar epithelium

C. submucosa