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Flashcards in GI 2 Deck (37):
1

MC type of intestinal tumor

tubular, typically in the rectosigmoid area
"stalk with raspberry like head"

2

villous intestinal tumor

higher risk of cancer
"velvety cauliflower"

3

familial polyposis

-1000s of adenomas
-100% cancer risk by midlife

4

order of tests for appendicitis

ultrasound, CT

5

MC small bowel malignancy location

duodenum, adenocarcinoma

6

where does colorectal cancer mets to?

liver #1, lung, bones, brain

7

Dukes staging

A-tumor penetrates into mucosa of bowel only
B1-penetrates into, but not through muscularis propria
B2-tumor goes through muscularis propria
C1-is B1 + lymph nodes C2-B2 + lymph nodes
D-distant mets

8

Tumor grade

T1-submucosa
T2-muscularis propria
T3-through muscularis into subserosa
T4-directly invades other organs

9

Node grade

N0-no regional lymph node mets
N1-1 to 3 regional ln
N2-4 or more regional ln
N3-node along blood vessel

10

MCC of anal bleeding

hemorrhoids

11

fistula

opening from inside to outside that is abnormal

12

main liver functions

-bile production
-metabolism, detox, excretions

13

bile route

R/L hepatic duct, CHD, CBD, pancreatic duct, duodenum

14

cirrhosis presents with

ascites, jaundice, esophageal varices

15

what test should you order for possible hepatic failure?

PT/INR

16

portal HTN

portal blood can't flood through to the vena cava b/c of fibrosis, leading to edema
the blocked blood causes vessels to dilate causing varices/medusa

17

first alcoholic liver disease exposure leads to...

steatosis, reversible until fibrosis occurs

18

severe alcohol exposure leads to

alcoholic hepatitis, reversible

19

if you continue to drink after alcoholic hepatitis....

you get cirrhosis, micronodular then "hobnail", irreversible

20

Wilson's disease

disorder of copper metabolism, effects hepatocyte transfer of copper into bile

21

Hep A
B
C
D
E

fecal/oral
bloodborne, all fluids except stool
bloodborne
goes w/B
waterborne fecal contamination, pregnancy

22

chronic hepatitis (> 6 months) leads to

macronodular cirrhosis

23

IGM vs IGG for hepatitis

IGM will be positive during window period bc it is the first ab made
IGG posiive means chronic hepatits
once IGM converts to IGG, you are chronic

24

envelope tell us

how infectious the person is

25

adenoma

benign tumor of hepatocytes, common w/females on OCP

26

MCC of hepatocellular carcinoma

Hep C, alpha-fetoprotein is a good marker

27

cholelithiasis

stones, pain that comes and goes after eating that resolves, use pain meds and elective cholecystectomy

28

cholecystitis

inflammation/blockage of cystic duct, constant RUQ pain, ABX and emergent cholecystecomy

29

reynolds pentad

fever, RUQ pain, jaundice, hypotension and altered mental status

30

test of choice for gallstones

HIDA scan

31

MC gallbladder cancer

adenomacarcinoma

32

MCC of pancreatitis

alcohol and gallstones
also scorpion bite can cause

33

acute pancreatitis presenting symptoms

worse lying down, better sitting up, pain in epigastric region radiating toward back
dx w/CT

34

MC pancreatic cancer

ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas head
CA 19-9 marker

35

DX of DM

random sugar >200, fasting >126

36

3 common symptoms seen with DM

polyuria-diuresis
polydipsia-blood is becoming hypertonic, water dilutes Na levels
polyphagia-glucose not going into cells

37

3 common diseases associated with DM

neuropathy
myopathy
retinopathy