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Flashcards in GI Deck (70):
1

malnutrition as a result of near starvation from protein and non preteen deficiency, very thin from loss of muscle and body fat

marasmus

2

seen in parts of the world where starch is main diet, protein deficient state

kwashiorkor

3

stool ph below 5.6 suggests?

carbohydrate malabsorption

4

a positive clinitest reaction shows?

watery and acidic stool resulting detected as reducing substances

5

what are 2 causes of carbohydrate malabsorption?

isolated congenital enzyme deficiency

mucosal atrophy

6

what can be used to document enteric protein losses?

fecal a1-antitrypsin levels

7

decreased _____ activity results in steatorrhea?

lipase actvity

8

abetalipoproteinemia is suggested by what?

acanthocytosis

9

macrocytic blood smear suggests what?

folic acid or vitamin b 12 deficiency

10

what majorly causes protein intolerance?

cows milk protein

11

what is the management of protein intolerance?

withdrawal and will resolve by 1-2 years of age

12

celiac disease location?

proximal small intestine

13

etiology of celiacs?

intolerance to gluten

14

what is the gold standard for celiac disease?

small bowel biopsy

15

what will small bowel biopsy show?

short/flat villi, deep crypts and vacuolated epithelium

16

what are specific in screening in celiac disease?

serum IgA - endomysial and serum tissue transglutaminase antibody testing

17

this occurs from small bowel resection as a result of volvulus, gastroschises?

short bowel syndrome

18

whats important in management of short bowel syndrome?

early TPN and parental feedings

19

this is characteristic torticollis with arching of the back caused by painful esophagitis

sandifer syndrome

20

this is the gold standard for GERD diagnosis

pH probe measurement

21

this is a motility agent used to increase LES tone or increase gastric emptying?

metoclopramide

22

palpable olive mass, projectile vomitting, and peristaltic waves

pyloric stenosis

23

metabolic profile of pyloric stenosis

hypochloremic, hypokalemic, metabolic alkalosis

24

what is the diagnostic method of choice for pyloric stenosis

ultrasound

25

what is the management of pyloric stenosis?

correct electrolyte abnormalities and then correct w/ partial pyloromyotomy

26

diagnostic tool for volvulus?

upper go contrast imaging

27

is volvulus a surgical emergency?

yes

28

what is the most common location of intussusception?

ileocolic

29

what is generally the etiology of intussception?

lead point

30

how do an infants legs present w/ intussception?

draw legs towards chest

31

currant jelly stools, sausage shaped mass and coil spring sign on radiograph?

intussecption

32

gold standard for intussception

contrast enema w/ air

33

first line therapy for intussception?

contrast enema w/ air or hydrostatic pressure

34

if intessucpetion w/ peritonitis or pneumoperitoneum?

operative reduction

35

bluish discoloration of flanks

gray turner sign

36

bluish discoloration of periumbilical area

cullen sign

37

what do gray turner sign and cullen sign indicate?

pancreatitits

38

what is elevated in acute pancreatitis?

serum amylase and serum lipase

39

imaging for pancreatitis?

abdominal US

40

imaging for pseudocyst in pancreatitis?

abdominal CT

41

acute a calculous cholecystitis is caused by what infections?

salmonella, shigella and e coli

42

what condition may cause acute chile in infants?

sickle cell disease

43

what is used to soften the stool in constipation?

mineral oil

44

painless acute rectal bleeding in a otherwise healthy child?

meckels diverticulum

45

how does jaundice generally occur?

begins cranially and extends caudally

46

this syndrome associatiated with hemolysis or with a very large hematoma, first starts as increased indirect to increased direct bill

inspissated bile syndrome

47

mild unconjugated biliburinemia occurs w/ stress or poor nutrition

UDP-glucuronyl transferase deficiency

48

autosomal recessive disorder 100% of udp transferase is absent causing kernicterus

criggler najar type i

49

autosomal dominant 90% udp gluorynl transferase absent

criggler najar type II

50

most common cause of cholestasis in new born

neonatal hepatitis

51

management of neonatal hepatitis

supportive
nutritional support
ursodeoxycholic acid
livertransplantation

52

hepatosplenomegaly, polyspenia syndrome, increased bilirubin levels?

biliary atresia

53

progressive fibroscleortic disease that affects the extra hepatic biliary tree

biliary atresia

54

intraop cholangiogram w/ laparotomy to examine biliary tree

dx. of biliary atresia

55

management of biliary atresia

kasaiportoenterstomy (roux-en-y intestinal loop)

56

paucity of intrahepatic bile ducts and multi organ involvement?

alagille syndrome

57

clinical features of alagille syndrome

debilitating pruritus
broad forehead
saddle nose
pulm outflow obstruction
renal disease
posterior embryotoxon
butterfly vertebrae and broad thumbs

58

management of alagille syndrome

supportive

59

picornovirus hepatitis caused by fecal oral route

hep A

60

a DNA virus heptitis?

hepatitis B

61

transmission of hep B

perinatal vertical exposure, infected blood products, body secretions

62

HBsAg

active disease ( used in hep B vaccine)

63

HBsAB

protective results from vaccination or natural infection

64

HBcAb

natural infection and persists life long

65

HBeAg

infectious, acute

66

RNA flavivirus family

hep C infection

67

those with hepatitis B have an increased risk of what?

hepatocellular carcinoma

68

this virus requires HBsAg for replication

heptatis D

69

elevated serum transaminatses, hypergammaglobulinema and circulating autoantibodies + family history of autoimmune disease

autoimmune hepatitis

70

management for autoimmune hepatitis

corticosteroids and immunosuppresive agents (azathioprine or 6 mercaptopurine)