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Flashcards in ophtho Deck (63):
1

i arm stands for?

inspection
acuity
red reflex
motility

2

inspection consists of what?

symmetry, tilt, redness and squinting

3

part of the exam that consists of pupillary responses and use of eye charts?

acuity

4

this is bruckner test

red reflex

5

this is hirchberg test

motility assesment

6

when does visual acuity improve the most?

during the first 3-4 months of life

7

when the corneal light reflex is uncentered it is generally?

strabismus

8

when there is a dull reflex it is generally?

glaucoma

9

when its a yellow or white reflex it is?

retinoblastoma

10

normal visual development is a dependent on what 2 things?

1. proper eye alignment
2. equal visual stimulation

11

the most common cause of decreased vision during childhood

amblyopia

12

what are pathologic conditions that cause a blurred visual image resulting in amblyopia

opacification, uncorrected refractive error, significant differences between the eyes (anisometropia),

13

what is the best management for amblyopia?

early detection and early intervention

14

3 neonatal conjuntivitis pathogens

Neisseria gonorrhoea
chlamydia trachomatis
HSV

15

chemical conjunctivitis is caused most by?

1% silver nitrate caused by prophylaxis to n. gonorrhoea

16

is neonatal chemical conjuncivitis a dangerous emergency?

no, it is self limited and lasts for less than 24 hours

17

N. gonorrhea

-onset
-cellularity
-tx

- 2-4 days old
-gram neg diplococci
- IV cefoxatime and topical
+tx parents

18

c. trachomatis
-onset
-cellularity
-tx

-4-10 days old
-cytoplasmic inclusion bodies (+ dirt fluorescent antibody
- oral erythyromycin + tx. parents

19

HSV
-onset
-cellularity
-tx

- 6 days -2 weeks
-multinucleated giant cells
-IV acyclovir and topical triflourothymidine

20

how can corneal abrasion be diagnosed?

flourescein staining

21

what are causes of corneal abrasion

trauma
bacterial corneal ulcer (gono)
HSV keratitis

22

conjunctivitis w/ lymphadenopathy

viral conjunctivitis

23

conjunctivitis w/ positive culture of staph aureus

blepharitis

24

conjunctivitis w/ eosinophils on conjunctival scrapings?

allergic

25

treatment for bacterial conjunctivitis?

topical polymyxin B, tmp smx, gentamicin, tobramycin, erythromycin

26

what virus causes pharyjgoconjunctival fever

adenovirus 3,7

27

is viral conjunctivitis unilateral or bilateral?

bilateral

28

treatment for viral conjunctivitis?

cool compresses and topical NSAID drops

29

what is the difference between keratoconjunctivitis and pharyjgoconjunctival fever? what is the same?

keratoconjunctivitis does not have URI.

keratoconjunctivitis is caused by adenovirus 8,9,37

30

what strand of HSV causes primary ocular HSV w/ multiple vesicular lesions

HSV type 1

31

what type of hypersensitivity reaction is allergic conjunctivitis?

TYPE 1

32

what is treatment of allergic conjunctivitis?

cromolyn and topical antihistamines

33

where does nasolacrimal duct obstruction occur?

Hasner's valve

34

what is the management of NLD obstruction

observation, massage, antibiotics and probing

35

this is a swelling of the nasolacrimal sac

amniotocele

36

what color is the swelling that occurs in amniotocele (dacryocele)

bluish swelling

37

amniotocele + infection tx?

iv antibiotics and urgent NLD probing

38

amniotocele no infection tx?

massage

39

ocular trauma associated w/ child abuse?

retinal hemorrhage

40

damage to and loss of corneal epithelium?

corneal abrasion

41

what is management of corneal abrasion?

protective shield patch, topical antibiotic and refer to optho if associated with contact lens

42

blood within the anterior chamber

hyphema

43

most common cause of hyphen?

blunt trauma

44

increased ocular pressure occurring at or soon after birth

congenital glaucoma

45

what is normal intraocular pressure in infants?

10-15 mm Hg

46

what is exceeding intraocular pressure in infants

30 mm Hg

47

how is congenital glaucoma different then adult glaucoma

causes nerve injury and expands size of the eye because eye wall is still elastic

48

what is reduced in glaucoma?

outflow of aqueous humor

49

true or false
surgery is always required in congenital glaucoma?

true

50

Retinopathy of prematurity

proliferation of vessels seen in premature infants exposed to oxygen

51

management of retinopathy of prematurity

opthalmic evaluations biweekly
retinal cryotherapy + laser therapy if severe

52

who should have a dilated opthalmoscopic exam at 4-6 weeks?

infants born at gestation age of 28 weeks or less weighing less than 1500 g

53

this refers to a white pupil?

leukocoria

54

what chromosome mutation results in retinoblastoma?

mutation/deletion on both alleles on long arm of chromosome 13
"TWO HIT"

55

what are 3 clinical features of retinoblastoma

calcification within tumor
white pupil
strabismus

56

strabismus

misalignment of the eyes

57

refers to eye turned nasally

esotropia

58

refers to eye turned laterally

exotropia

59

this results in false appearance of strabismus

prominence of epicentral folds

60

what happens if strabismus occurs later than 5 years?

diploplia

61

follicular conjunctivitis, neovascularization and nasal discharge are all caused by?

c. trachomatis conjunctivitis

62

do you patch the deviated eye or the normal eye in strabismus?

patch the normal eye so the deviated eye can gain strength

63

at what age should visual acuity test be given?

age 3 w/ snellen chart or tumbling E