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Flashcards in Pulmonology Deck (50):
1

bronchial tree develops at?

16 weeks gestation

2

when does most alveolar development occur?

after birth

3

examples of obstructive defects are

asthma, bronchiolitis and foreign body aspiration

4

restrictive defects are

pulm edema, scoliosis, pulm fibrosis, muscle weakness

5

inspiratory stridor indicates what 2 things?

croup and laryngomalacia

6

is laryngomalacia worse in supine or prone position?

supine

7

expiratory wheezing suggests?

intrathoracic obstruction

8

HIB and strep pypogenes cause?

epiglottits

9

sitting forward in tripod w/ neck hyperextension is reflective of?

epiglottitis or retropharyngeal absence

10

thumb print on lateral radiograph? cherry red swollen epiglottis?

HIB epiglottitis

11

management of epiglottitis

nasotracheal intubation w/ out causing distress

12

what should be given to close contacts to those w/ HIB epiglottis?

rifampin

13

medical treatment of epiglottis?

3rd or 4th generation IV cephalosporin

14

what are the 2 different types of croup?

viral and spasmodic

15

what is the age group for viral croup?

3 months - 3 years

16

what is the most common cause for viral croup?

parainfluenza virus

17

croup caused by hypersensitivity at night?

spasmodic croup

18

treatment for spasmodic croup?

systemic corticosteroids

19

tx for croup w/ respiratory distress

recemic epinephrine aerosols

20

ap radiograph of neck in viral croup shows?

steeple sign of subglottic narrowing

21

RSV is the most common cause of?

bronchiolitis

22

hyperinflation w/ air trapping, patchy infiltrates and atelectasis shows?

bronchiolitis

23

what is a complication of bronchiolitis?

apnea

24

treatment for bronchiolitis?

primarily supportive w/ hand washing

25

what may be given prophylacticaly by IM during RSV season to infants w/ premies chronic lung disease or significant congenital heart disease?

RSV monoclonal antibody

26

WBC > 20,000 mainly neutrophils and lobar consolidation?

bacterial pneumo

27

common cause of AFEBRILE PNEUMO 1-3 months old

chlamydia trachomatis

28

tx for chlamydia trach pneumo

erythromycin or azithromycin

29

pneumonia in older children and adolescents w/ low grade fever

mycoplasma pneumo

30

+ cold agglutinins, serum iGM titers

cause?
tx?

mycoplasma pneumo
oral erythromycin and azithromycin

31

major cause of whooping cough?

bordetella pertussis

32

3 stages of pertussis

catarrhal stage, paroxysmal stage, convalescent phase

33

1-2 week long stage w/ rhinorrhea, nasal congestion, conjunctiva and fever?

catarrhal stage

34

lasts 2-4 w/ fits of paroxysm coughing w/ gasp, may show cyanosis, apnea and choking

paroxysmal stage

35

lasts weeks to month in which paroxysmal cough becomes less frequent and less severe

convalescent stage

36

management of pertussis

1. hospitalization of youn infants b/c of choking apnea or cyanosis
2. antibiotics given to spread infection (azithromycin or erythromycin)
3. respiratory isolation until 5 days of antibiotics

37

pancreatic insufficiency, meconium ileum at birth, steeatorrhea, recurrent pneumo w/ naal polyps?

cystic fibrosis

38

chromosome mutation for CF?

chromosome 7 CFTR gene, autosomal recessive

39

2 common causes of pneumo w/ CF

s. aureus and pseudomonal aeruginosa

40

what is increased on new born screen w/ CF?

trypsinogen

41

metabolic findings w/ chronic lung diseases?

decreased Pa02 and increased paCO2

42

oxygen dependency beyond 28 days of life?

chronic lung disease

43

patient population of chronic lung disease?

premature w/ hyaline membrane disease or surfactant deficiency syndrome

44

stopping breathing for ___ seconds is normal for all ages

15 seconds

45

cessation of breathing for greater than 20 seconds ?

apnea of infancy

46

apnea, color change, muscle tone change, gagging where recovery occurs only after stimulation or resuscitation?

apparent life threateningg event

47

sudden death of a child younger than 1 year of age that is unexplained after a thorough investigation

SIDS

48

prone sleeping position, soft bedding, over bundling, overhearing, premature, are all risk factors for?

SIDS

49

immature central respiratory center control causes

apnea of prematurity

50

craniofacial anomalies, adenotonsillar hypertrophy, obesity or hypotonia all can cause?

obstructive apnea