Flashcards in Pulmonology Deck (50):
bronchial tree develops at?
16 weeks gestation
when does most alveolar development occur?
examples of obstructive defects are
asthma, bronchiolitis and foreign body aspiration
restrictive defects are
pulm edema, scoliosis, pulm fibrosis, muscle weakness
inspiratory stridor indicates what 2 things?
croup and laryngomalacia
is laryngomalacia worse in supine or prone position?
expiratory wheezing suggests?
HIB and strep pypogenes cause?
sitting forward in tripod w/ neck hyperextension is reflective of?
epiglottitis or retropharyngeal absence
thumb print on lateral radiograph? cherry red swollen epiglottis?
management of epiglottitis
nasotracheal intubation w/ out causing distress
what should be given to close contacts to those w/ HIB epiglottis?
medical treatment of epiglottis?
3rd or 4th generation IV cephalosporin
what are the 2 different types of croup?
viral and spasmodic
what is the age group for viral croup?
3 months - 3 years
what is the most common cause for viral croup?
croup caused by hypersensitivity at night?
treatment for spasmodic croup?
tx for croup w/ respiratory distress
recemic epinephrine aerosols
ap radiograph of neck in viral croup shows?
steeple sign of subglottic narrowing
RSV is the most common cause of?
hyperinflation w/ air trapping, patchy infiltrates and atelectasis shows?
what is a complication of bronchiolitis?
treatment for bronchiolitis?
primarily supportive w/ hand washing
what may be given prophylacticaly by IM during RSV season to infants w/ premies chronic lung disease or significant congenital heart disease?
RSV monoclonal antibody
WBC > 20,000 mainly neutrophils and lobar consolidation?
common cause of AFEBRILE PNEUMO 1-3 months old
tx for chlamydia trach pneumo
erythromycin or azithromycin
pneumonia in older children and adolescents w/ low grade fever
+ cold agglutinins, serum iGM titers
oral erythromycin and azithromycin
major cause of whooping cough?
3 stages of pertussis
catarrhal stage, paroxysmal stage, convalescent phase
1-2 week long stage w/ rhinorrhea, nasal congestion, conjunctiva and fever?
lasts 2-4 w/ fits of paroxysm coughing w/ gasp, may show cyanosis, apnea and choking
lasts weeks to month in which paroxysmal cough becomes less frequent and less severe
management of pertussis
1. hospitalization of youn infants b/c of choking apnea or cyanosis
2. antibiotics given to spread infection (azithromycin or erythromycin)
3. respiratory isolation until 5 days of antibiotics
pancreatic insufficiency, meconium ileum at birth, steeatorrhea, recurrent pneumo w/ naal polyps?
chromosome mutation for CF?
chromosome 7 CFTR gene, autosomal recessive
2 common causes of pneumo w/ CF
s. aureus and pseudomonal aeruginosa
what is increased on new born screen w/ CF?
metabolic findings w/ chronic lung diseases?
decreased Pa02 and increased paCO2
oxygen dependency beyond 28 days of life?
chronic lung disease
patient population of chronic lung disease?
premature w/ hyaline membrane disease or surfactant deficiency syndrome
stopping breathing for ___ seconds is normal for all ages
cessation of breathing for greater than 20 seconds ?
apnea of infancy
apnea, color change, muscle tone change, gagging where recovery occurs only after stimulation or resuscitation?
apparent life threateningg event
sudden death of a child younger than 1 year of age that is unexplained after a thorough investigation
prone sleeping position, soft bedding, over bundling, overhearing, premature, are all risk factors for?
immature central respiratory center control causes
apnea of prematurity