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Flashcards in GI Deck (60)
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1

leukonychia: what is it and GI causes

whitening of nail bed

hypoalbuminaemia --> liver disease

2

koilonychia: what is it and GI causes

spoon nails

anaemia

3

GI causes of finger clubbing

liver cirrhosis
IBD
coeliac

4

GI cause of asterixis (flapping tremor)

hepatic encephalopathy

5

GI cause palmar erythema

chronic liver disease

6

cause of duputren's contracture

alcohol

7

GI cause bruising

clotting abnormalities caused by liver dysfunction

8

GI cause scratch marks

chronic cholestasis

9

what is parotid swelling caused by

alcohol

10

what do look for in eyes of GI examination

jaundice
conjuncival pallor --> anaemia

11

what do look for in mouth when GI examination

angular stomatitis (Fe def anaemia)
odur of foetor hepaticus)

12

where is Virchow's node

left supraclavicular fossa

13

what do we look for on chest during GI examination

spider naevii
gyncaecomastia
hair loss

14

leg signs during GI examination

peripheral oedema - hypoalbuminaemia (liver failure)
hair loss
erythema nodosum - IBD

15

9 regions abdomen

R + L hypochondriac
epigastric
R + L lumbar
umbillical
R + L inguinal
hypogastric

16

what looks for when inspecting abdomen

scars
adbominal distension
caput medusae
striae
movement with respiration
stoma
petechiae
visible pulsation

17

causes of abdominal distension

fat
flatus
faeces
fluid
foetus

18

what are caput medusae a sign of

portal hypertension

19

what do we look for during light palpation of abdomen

tenderness
rebound tenderness
involuntary guarding
Rovsing's sign
masses

20

what is rebound tenderness a sign of

peritonitis e.g. appendicitis

21

what is rovsing's sign and what does it suggest

palpation of left iliac fossa causes pain in right iliac fossa

peritonitis

22

what may be felt normally during deep palpation of abdomen

pulsation of abdo aorta
caecum (R. iliac)
desc. and sigmoid colon (L)

23

what do we need to talk about when describing a mass felt

location: which region of abdomen
approx size and shape
consistency: smooth, soft, hard, irregular
mobility: is it attached to surrounding structures
does it pulse

24

when palpating liver what do need to talk about

is it palpable?
degree extension below costal margin (>2cm hepatomegaly)
consistency (nodular = cirrhosis)
tender (if so then hepatitis, cholecystitis)
is it pulsatile (tricuspid regurgitation)

25

causes of hepatomegaly

hepatitis
hepatocellular carcinoma
haemachromatosis
leukaemia
myleoma
haemolytic anaemia
tricuspid regurgitation
glandular fever

26

causes of splenomegaly

congestive heart failure
haemolytic anaemia
portal HTN 2nd to cirrhosis
splenic metastases

27

can kidneys be palpated

occasionally in very slim person may feel lower pole of R kidney

28

causes of enlarged kidneys

polycystic kidney disease
renal tumour
amyloidosis

29

tinkling bowel sound

bowel obstruction

30

absent bowel sounda

>2min listenign

paralytic ileus