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Flashcards in neuro Deck (91)
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1

observation of upper limbs

muscle atrophy
fasciculations
skeletal deformity
scars
tremors
involuntary movements

2

physiological tremor

fine, fast upper limb tremor
increased by anxiety, alcohol excess, hyperthyroidism

3

parkinsonian tremor

slow, coarse, greater at rest, usually asymetrical

4

dystonia

sustained muscle contractions
twisting + repetitive

5

chorea + athetosis

writhing movements

6

ballismus

violent swinging movements

7

ticks

repetitive + stereotyped
can be suppressed by patient

8

when assessing tone of upper limbs what movements are looked at

passive movement of elbow flexion + extension, forearm supination + pronation and wrist flexion + extension

9

spasticity

form of hypertonia

velocity dependent - worse when moved quicker
varies throughout joint motion
UMN lesion, may be accompanied by weakness and hyperreflexia

10

rigidity

form of hypertonia
sustained resistance even with slow movement and present throughout full joint motion

lead-pipe rigidity
cog-wheel rigidity

11

what movements are tested during upper limb power

shoulder abduction
elbow flexion + extension
wrist flexion and extension
finger extension
finger flexion
finger abduction
thumb abduction

12

what nerves + muscles being tested during resistance of shoulder abduction

C5
axillary nerve

deltoid and other shoulder abductors

13

what nerves + muscles being tested during power of elbow flexion

C5/6
musculocutenous and radial nerves

biceps brachii, coracobrachialis, brachialis

14

what nerves + muscles being tested during resistance of elbow extension

C7
radial nerve
triceps brachii

15

what nerves + muscles being tested during power of wrist extension

C6
radial nerve
extensors of wrist

16

what nerves + muscles being tested during power of wrist flexion

C6/7
median nerve
flexors of wrist

17

what nerves + muscles being tested during resistance of finger extension

C7
radial nerve
extensor digitorum

18

what nerves being tested during resistance of finger flexion

median and ulnar nerves

19

what nerves + muscles being tested during resistance of finger abduction

T1
ulnar nerve
intrinsic muscles hanfd

20

what nerves + muscles being tested during resistance of thumb abduction

T1
median nerve
abductor pollicis brevis

21

UMN lesion pattern of weakness

pyramidal pattern of weakness that disproportionately affects upper limb extensors and lower limb flexors

22

LMN lesion pattern of weakness

focal pattern of weakness
only muscles directly innervated by damaged neurones affected

23

what does presence of pronator drift indicate

contralateral pyramidal tract lesion

24

co-ordination tests upper limb

outstretched arms
finger-nose test
rapid alternating hand movements

25

biceps reflex

C5/6

26

supinator reflex

C6

27

triceps relfex

C7

28

what is hyperreflexia suggestive of

UMN lesion e.g. stroke

29

C5 dermatome area

regimental badge area

30

c6 dermatome area

palmar side thumb