GI Session1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in GI Session1 Deck (17):
1

Role of mouth and oesophagus

Mastication
Salivation to protect mouth, lubricate food, starts digestion of sugars
Swallowing via formation of a bolus and rapid oesophageal transport

2

Role of Stomach

Storage (relaxes to accommodate food)
Initial disruption via contracting rhythmically and secretion of acid and proteolitic enzymes to break down and disinfect
Slowly delivers chyme into duodenum

3

Role od duodenum

Dilution and neutralisation of chyme
Water drawn in from ECF
Alkali added from liver and pancreas
Enzymes added

4

Role of small intestine

Absorption of nutrients, electrolytes and water

5

Large intestine

Final absorption of water, very slow transit, formation of faeces

6

What makes up the small intestine?

Duodenum, jejunum, ileum

7

What nervous system directly controls the GI?

Enteric nervous system (a subdivision of the autonomic)

8

What groups of hormones produced in the gut, affect the gut?

Gastrin and secretin

9

Dysphagia

Difficulty swallowing

10

Acid Reflux

Causes heartburn, sphincter between stomach and oesophagus is faulty

11

Barrett's oesophagus

Metaplasia of lower oesophageal squamous cells to gastric columnar to protect from chronic acid reflux

12

Oesophageal varcies

Due to liver disease, causes dilation of submucosal veins in lower oesophagus, can burst and cause bleeding into the oesophagus

13

Peptic ulceration

Damage to inner mucosa of stomach or duodenum, usually due to irritation from gastric acid

14

Haemorrhoids

Vascular structures in the anal canal that aid with stool control
Can become swollen, inflamed, painful, itchy.

15

Prolapse

Organs fall out of place

16

Diverticula

Pressure to high in colon, causing a hollow out pouching

17

Meckel's Diverticulum

Pouch in lower part of small intestine, can produce gastric mucosa that produces gastric acid causing irritation