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Flashcards in Resp Session1 Deck (35):
1

Boyle's Law

If temp constant, pressure is inversely proportional to vol

2

Charles' Law

Pressure is proportional to absolute temp

3

universal Gas law

pressure x vol = Gas constant x temp

4

Define partial pressure and calculation

Gases behave independently, pp is portion of total pressure
same as fraction of volume in gas mixture

5

vapour pressure

water molecules that evaporate exert their own partial pressure

6

Saturated Vapour pressure and relevance in lungs

when gas entering and leaving water is equal
when gases enter the body they are completely saturated with water vapour so don't dry out the lungs

7

Define Tension in water

How readily a gas will leave the liquid
At ebb tension=partial pressure

8

Content of gas in water

Solubility (how easily a gas dissolves) x Tension

9

Tidal Vol

amount of air displaced between inspiration and expiration when no extra effort is exerted

10

Optimum ventilation/perfusion ratio and how it is achieved

0.8
hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (hypoxia of alveoli causes vasoconstriction therefore greater flow to well ventilated alveoli)
chronic leads to RV failure

11

Define lower respiratory tract and what it consists of

The parts lying inside of the thorax
Trachea, Bronchi, Lobar Bronchi (3 on left, 2 on right, have cartilage), Segmental Bronchi, Sub segmental bronchi, bronchioles (no cartilage, more SMC), terminal bronchioles,
respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveoli

12

Define upper respiratory tract and what it consists of

Parts outside of the thorax
Nasal Cavity, Pharynx, Larynx

13

Why do bronchi have cartilaginous rings?

Hold them open to provide path for air

14

Why do bronchioles have more SMC

Increase volume to draw air in

15

What are Conchae (or terbinates) and what are they for?

Folds in the nasal cavity offering vast heat exchange to warm air.

16

Name the 5 sinuses

Paranasal, Frontal, Ethmoidal, Sphenoidal, Maxillary

17

Three parts of the pharynx

Nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx (hypopharynx)

18

Describe nasopharynx

Posterior nasal cavity to soft palate
Respiratory function
Lymphoid tissues aggregate to form tonsils

19

Describe Oropharynx

Extends from soft palate to superior border of epiglottis,
digestive function (involved in swallowing)

20

Describe Laryngopharynx

Posterior to larynx, superior border of epiglottis to inferior border of circoid cartilage, then continuous with oesophagus

21

Describe the position of the larynx

Anterior to laryngopharynx, extends from laryngeal input down to level of inferior border of circoid cartilage and becomes continuous with the trachea

22

Larynx's function

Guard trachea during swallowing
Voice box contained there, nine cartilages connected by membranes and ligaments (vocal chords)

23

How is the cavity in the middle air connected to respiratory pathways?

Via the eustachian tube to the nasopharynx

24

what is the olfactory region of the nose?

Organ of smell

25

Histology of non olfactory nasal regions

Ciliated pseudo stratified epithelium,
mucous glands and venous plexuses that swell to alternate air flow through nostrils to prevent drying

26

Histology of olfactory nasal regions

V Thick pseudo stratified epithelium, no goblet cells, serous glands flush odorants from epithelial surface

27

Histology of Larynx

Ventricular folds: pseudostratified,
Vocal chords: stratified squamous, stop foreign objects reaching lungs

28

Histology of Trachea

Pseudostratified ciliated,
Lamina propia
Seromucus glands
C shaped cartilaginous rings

29

Histology of primary bronchi

Similar to trachea but cartilaginous rings encircle lumen

30

Histology of lobar and segmental bronchi

Similar to primary bronchi but crescent shaped cartilage

31

Histology of Bronchus

Small islands of cartilage, glands in submucosa

32

Histology of Bronchiole

Na cartilage or glands, surrounding alveoli keep the lumen open, goblet cells give way to clara cells, secrete surfactant lipoprotein and PCC16, indicator to bronchoalveolar damage
No goblet cells in terminal bronchioles

33

Raised and lowered CC16

lowered = lung damage
raised= leakage across barrier

34

Histology of alveoli

Type 1 pneumocytes (squamous) permitting gas exchange
T2 pneumocytes (cuboidal) produce surfactant
Surrounded by network of elastin and reticular fibres and macrophages scattered

35

What is the glottis?

2 vocal chords and the opening