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Flashcards in Urinary Session1 Deck (14):

4 functions of the kidney

Vol control
osmolarity control
pH control
Excrete some waste products


Position of the kidneys

Retroperitoneal, either side of abdominal cavity at T12 to L3
Right lower than left due to liver
mobility of 3cm when breathing


Position of Bladder

Behind the pubic bone


Position of Prostate

Directly below bladder, the urethra passes through it


Route of ureters

From renal pelvis, descend in front of psoas major, cross the pelvis brim near bifurcation of iliac arteries and under the uterine artery down the pelvic sidewall to the posterior surface of the bladder


Bony landmarks of ureters passage

Begin at L2, descend in front of lumbar spine transverse processes
Cross into pelvic brim in front of sacroiliac joint
Enter bladder at level of iliac spine


Most likely positions for arise of a kidney stone in the ureter

Junction of renal pelvis to ureter
ureter crosses the brim of the pelvis
ureter passes into there wall of the bladder


What surrounds the kidney?

Fibrous capsule


What is contained in the renal cortex?

Glomerulus, Bowmans capsule and renal tubules (apart from loop of Henele)


Describe and What is contained in the renal medulla

Loop of Henle, Collecting ducts as medulla is hypertonic
it is split into pyramids, these empty urine into the minor calyxes via papilla, these form major calyxes


Renal blood flow

Renal artery from aorta at L2,
Segmental, Interlobar, arcuate, interlobular, afferent arterioles, glomerulus, efferent arterioles


Metabolic demand from CO at rest of kidneys



Role of Proximal convoluted tubule

Major site of reabsorption (Na, water, K, bicarbonate, glucose, AA)


Role of distant convoluted tubule

major site of reabsorption of electrolytes and water, (fluid from loop of hence is still hypotonic)