GI The Small Intestine, Exocrine Pancreas And Biliary System Flashcards Preview

Physiology > GI The Small Intestine, Exocrine Pancreas And Biliary System > Flashcards

Flashcards in GI The Small Intestine, Exocrine Pancreas And Biliary System Deck (58):
1

What are the three parts of the small intestine

Duo jej and ileum

2

What does the small intestine recieve

Chyme form stomach duodenal bulb
Panc juice form panc more distal part of duo
Bile form gall bladder

3

What does the small intestine sec

Intestinal juice

4

How is the surface area in the small intestine

Very well adapted
Circular folds
Villi
Microvilli

5

The small intestine secretes some peptide hormones which are? What kind of sec

Endocrine cells prod these
Gastrin
Cck
Secretin
Motilin
Glucagon like insulinotropic peptide
Glucagon like peptide 1
Ghrelin

6

What produces cck

Form I cells in duo and jej
Enterogastrones

7

What produces secretin

S cells

8

What cells prod motilin

M cells

9

What are the incretins prod from

K cells and L cells

10

What do gr cells prod

Ghrelin

11

What do all the peptide homones of the small intestine act on

GPCR's

12

How much intestinal juice prod a day

Approx 2 litres

13

What is the other name for intestinal juice

Succus entericus

14

What promotes Succus entericus prod

Gastrin
Cck
Distension
Secretin
Parasymp nerve activity

15

What decrease Succus entericus prod

Symp nerve activity

16

What dos Succus entericus contain

Mucus - for protection and lubrication form goblet cells
Aq salt - for enzymatic digestion in crypt of Lieberman
No digestive enzymes

17

What so the movements of segmentation

Chopping moving backward and forward vigour is after a meal
Alternation contractiona nd rleaxations of circular muscles
Initiated by BER
Initiated also by chyme distension

18

What is segmentation of an empty ileum triggered by

Gastrin form the stomach
Gastroileal reflex

19

What is segmentation movement like in pace

3-5 hours slow as allow time for abs

20

What changes the segmentation strength

The symp and parasymp activity

21

What is the MMc

Migrating motor complex
Between 90-120 min
Strong peristaltic contraction clearing small intestine between meals

22

What inhibits the MMc

Vagal activty and feeding

23

What triggers MMc

Motilin
Surpressed by Gastrin and cck

24

What is the endocrine part of the panc

Insulin and glucagon sce to blood

25

What is the exocrine part of the pancreas

Digestive enzymes form the acinar cells
And ions in panc juice

26

What do pancreatic duct cells produce

Bicarbonate rich solution to duo
Neutralises acidic chyme

27

What does the bicarbonate rich solution do

Protect the mucosa, barriers erosion of acids
And provide optimum oh for enzymes

28

What do the pancreatic enzymes do

Can completely digest food in absence of all other enzymes

29

Where are the pancreatic hormones produced

In the acinar cells
Enzymes stored in zymogen granules

30

What are the 5 enzymes pancreatic

3 proteases
- trypsinogen
- chymotrypsinogen
- procarboxypeptidase a and b

Panc amylase

Panc lipase

31

The proteases are inactive and then activates to what forms

Trypsinogen --> trypsin
Chymotrypsinogen --> chymotrypsin
Procarboxypeptidase a and b --> carboxypeptidase a and b

32

How are the inactive proteases activated

By emterokinases form mucosal cells

33

What are the phases of control of panc sec

Cephalic - mediated by vs gal activity of acinar cells
Gastric - gastric distension evokes vagovagal reflex = parasymp stim of acinar and duct cells

Intestinal - acid = secretin in crease bicarbonate prod
Fat proetin = cck increase digestive enzymes

34

What does the biliary system compromise of

Liver, gall bladder, associated ducts

35

Approx how much bile produced a day

0.6-1.2 litres a day

36

What happens to bile between meals

Store and conc I gall bladder

37

What sholens to bile during a meal

Chyme in duo stim gall bladder contract via cck and bagel activty
Sphincter of oddi open via cck
Bile spurts to duo via cystic duct and common bile ducts

38

What is bile composition

Secretion of hepatocytes - liver cells
Secretion of bile duct cells - cholangiocytes

39

What happens in the bile ducts

The bile secretions mix

40

What does bile do

Participate in digestion and abs of fats

41

How much does the use secreted form the bile duct cells constituent the overla volume

25%

42

What is the bile duct cell composition

Similar to panc alkaline juice
Ions and bicarbonate rich

43

What happens to the bile duct cell sec between and during meals

Between - has ionic comp near plasma
During meal - flow rate increases in repsonse to secretin form duo s cells

44

When the flow rate of bile duct cells sec increases what happens to the product of secretion

Have more bicarbonate as the exchanger at the apical mem less time for Cl/bicarbonate exchange so more bicarbonate in sec

45

What does the neural environment the bile forms allow

Michelle production
Neutralisation of chyme
Ph adjustment for digestive enzyme optimum
Protection of mucosa

46

What do hepatocytes sec

Primary juice form canuliculli which fuse and form biliary du tules

47

What is hepatic bile composed of

Primary bile acids mainly chain and chenodeoxycholic acids
Water and electrolytes
Lipids and phospholipids
Cholesterol
Immunoglobulin
Bilirubin

48

What does bilirubin do

Only constitutes the yellow pigment

49

What can an excess of cholesterol lead to

Bile acids and lecithin may precipitate into micorsrytals that aggregate to gall stones

50

What sit he system which makes use of the bile in the body again a nd again

Enterohepatic recycling

51

What's is the rate of synthesis of bile salts dept upon

Hepatic portal blood conc of salts
Low conc Stim syn
High conc inhib syn

52

What does cck do for the secretin of bile

Causes gall bladder contraction and relaxation of sphincter of oddi

53

What does secretin do tot the bilesec

Causes aq alkaline bile sec

54

What does vagal activity do to the bile sec

Via release of ACh
Produces mild sec repsonse in cephalic phase of digestion

55

What does gastrindo do

Stim sec by parietal and chief cells
Enhance gastric motility
Stim illeocecal motility

56

What's dos secretin do

Inhib gastric emptying
Inhib gastric sec
Stim sec panc duct cells
Stim sec of bile form liver

57

What does cck do

Inhib gastric empty
Inhib gastric sec
Stim digestive enzyme sec by panc acinar cells
Causes gall bladder contraction
Relax sphincter of oddi

58

What's is the small intestine the major site for

Digestion and absorption