Endocrine Control Of Fuel Utilisation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Endocrine Control Of Fuel Utilisation Deck (32):
1

What is regulated by the endocrine system

Energy expenditure and fuel supply

2

What is the resting energy expenditure

At rest and awake but not recently fed

3

What are the factors affecting metabolism

Starvation
Feeding
Growth
Disease
Pregnancy

4

How does starvation affect metabolism

Leads to reduced energy expenditure basal resting and total

5

How does feeding affect the metabolism

Elevates energy expenditure
Energy required for storage some abs and digestion
Protein > fat or CHO

6

How does growth affect the mat abolish

Increases total energy expenditure

7

How does disease affect the metabolism

Increases metab and energy expended

8

How does pregnancy aft the metabolism

Inc by 10% for Dev foetus

9

What happens after feeding

Increas in blood conc of glucose aa's and fats

10

What does the body produce after eating

Response to prod insulin decrease glucagon

11

What is the meal is high in protein

Glucagon also increases

12

What is the goal in the fed state

Convert amino acids, hexoses and tags abs from gut into forms which can be stored

13

What is the goal of the hungry state

Mobilise stored reserves to produce metabolic fuels

14

What happens when there is long term starvation

Glucose obligates such as the brain switch to ketone body oxidation

Body also reduces basal metabolic rate

15

Does
-insulin
-glucagon
- glucose
-FFA
- ketones
- alanine
Increase or decrease after a 2 week starvation

Unsulin- decrease
Glucagon - increases
Glucose - decreases
FFA - increases
Ketones - increases
Alanine - increases

16

What nervous stimulation releases noradrenalineand adrenaline

Sympathetic

17

What does adrenaline do

Increasesfat mobilisation by activating hormone sensitive lipase

18

Adrenaline also causes cortisol release which leads to

Stim of hepatic gluconeogensis
Inhib tissue glucose uptake

19

Where are the adrenal Glands located

On top of each kidney

20

Are energy requirements constant

No change all the t to sleep exercise illness starvation

21

What is the strut ural layers of the adrenal glands

Connective tissue capsule
Cortex - zona glomerulosa, fasciculata, reticularis
Medulla

22

What layers is
Aldosterone
Cortisol
Sex hormones (androgens)
Produced

Aldosterone - glomerulosa
Cortisol - fasciculata
Sex hormones - reticularis

23

Where in the adrenal gland is adrenaline produced and stored

Produced in the medulla and soared in granules

24

What kind of rhythm does cortisol show

Diurnal

25

What is the effect of cortisol

Increase pool of carbohydrates, amino acids, fats would be available for use as needed in stressful situations

26

What are the different types of stress

Physical
Chemical
Physiological
Psychological
Social

27

What does adrenaline do

- stimulates gluconeogensis and glycogenolysis - raises blood glucose

- activates hormone sensitive lipase to promote fatty acid release

-increases cardiac muscle contractility

- Heart rate rises

- coronary and skeletal muscle arterioles dilate

- arousal of higher centres

28

What do glucocorticoids do

Raise blood glucose at expense of protein
Fat lipolysis
Not important for rapid mobilisation of fuel
Important for cardiac and skeletal fiction
Anti inflammatory

29

During stress if there is a lack of cortisol what does that lead to

Circulatory shock due to lack of adrenaline effect on circulation

30

What are the effects of an adrenalectomy

Loss of ability to respond to stress
Loss steroid hormones
Circulatory collapse heartbeat less effective decrease in peripheral resistance
Skeletal muscle fatigue
Increase in apathy - lethargy

31

What is Addison's disease

Cortisol deficiency due to low acth or damage to adrenal cortex
Characterised by
- hypoglycaemia
- poor response to stress

Deficiency also in aldosterone primary

Secondary adrenal cortical def

32

What is crushing disease

Glucocorticoid disease excess
Increased acth
Hyperglycaemia
Elevated blood pressure
Obesity
Wasting skeletal muscle
Mood swings
Poor wound healing