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What is gastroenteritis?

Inflammation in GI tract.


What are the symptoms of gastroenteritis? What is it in the acute phase?

Basically food poisoning! Symptoms include N/V, abd pain/cramping, low grade fever, headache, etc.


How do we treat gastroenteritis?

Antibiotics, anti-emetics (but we have to watch those because they can sometimes slow peristalsis which is bad because we want the bad organism/bug to get out of there!)


What are some examples of a protozoal infection?

Dysenteries, Amebiasis, Giardiasis, Parasitic infections, etc.


What are the symptoms of a protozoal infection?

Abd cramps, diarrhea, nausea, weight loss, weakness, etc.


How do we diagnose and treat a protozoal infection?

Stool for O&P and treat like gastroenteritis!


Appendicitis - what is it?

Inflammation of the appendix.


What are symptoms of appendicitis?

Vague abdominal pain --> RLQ pain. Also, McBurney's Point (inbetween navel and hip), N/V - these come last.


If it's N/V --> Abdominal Pain, that is ____.

If it's ABD Pain then N/V, that is ____.

If it's N/V --> Abdominal Pain, that is gastroenteritis.

If it's ABD Pain then N/V, that is appendicitis.


How do we diagnose appendicitis?

WBC >10,000, Abdominal/Pelvic Xray & Ultrasound, Iv Fluids, Antibiotics, possibly surgery.


What is the Rovsing's Sign?

When you push on the left abdomen, they feel pain in the right. It's associated with appendicitis.


What is the psoas sign?

Pain when you flex hip. It's associated with appendicitis.


What are some things we have to watch for in appendicitis (in regards to nursing diagnoses)?

Altered tissue perfusion, altered comfort, risk for infection, impaired skin integrity, fear of the unknown, etc.


What is peritonitis?

Acute inflammation of endothelial lining of the abdominal cavity or peritoneum.


What is Primary Peritonitis?

It's rare - from infection in the blood.


What is secondary peritonitis?

Ruptured appendix, diverticulum, gallbladder, peritoneal dialysis, etc.


What are some symptoms of peritonitis?

Pain, abdominal distention, board-like abdomen, hypoactive bowel sounds, N/V, increased temp, shallow respirations, fear/anxiety, etc.


How do we diagnose peritonitis?

WBC, Blood cultures, paracentesis, exploratory surgery, abd. x-rays, etc.


Peritonitis - how do they treat it?

Meds (mycins, flagyl), surgery to remove damaged tissue or close perforation, etc. Sometimes they are so swollen they just leave the incision open!


What is a paralytic ileus/ileus?

Nerve impairment of bowel which decreases propulsion of bowel contents.


What cause an ileus?

Injuries to GI tract, abdominal surgery, c-section-, general anesthesia, IBD.


How do we prevent an ileus?

Avoid total bed-rest especially post-op, assess bowel sounds, etc.


What are symptoms of an ileus?

Slowed to NO bowel sounds, N/V, no stools, abdominal pain, increased abdominal girth, malaise, weakness, etc.


How do we treat an ileus?

Decompress bowel with NG, suction, NPO, IV, increase GI motility, etc. Reglan might work but it takes days to recover from!


What is ulcerative colitis?

Inflammation of intestinal mucosa that begins in rectum and progresses towards cecum. Leaves ulcerations. Causes perforation and fistula formation.


What are some symptoms of Ulcerative Colitis?

Bloody, mucousy diarrhea, rectal bleeding, anemia, nutritional impairment, fatigue, anorexia, weakness, abdominal cramps in the LLQ RELIEVED by defecation.


What is tenesmus?

When you feel like you constantly have to shit.


How do we diagnose UC?

Exam stool, H&H, WBC, proctosigmoidoscopy, etc.


What should we do as nurses for a patient with UC?

Relieve abdominal cramping & diarrhea, emotional support. etc.


What diet might help a patient with UC?

Lactose free, NO caffeine, no raw fruits or veggies, increase bulk forming (bran), hi cal drinks if NPO.