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Med School: Semester 2 > GI1a > Flashcards

Flashcards in GI1a Deck (27):
1

What are the two channels that are used to get transport Cl- from the cell body into the lumen?

CFTR

ano1

2

What regulates the CFTR and ano1 channels?

CFTR: cAMP

ano1: IP3 > Ca++ > ano1

3

What three glands secrete saliva?

a. parotid
b. mandibular
c. sublingual

4

What type of saliva, and what percent, do the sublingual, parotid and mandibular glands secrete?

parotid: watery, 25%
mandibular: mixed, 70%
sublingual: mucous, 5%

5

Does the parasympathetic or sympathetic nervous system control salivation? What receptors are used?

They are both used!

Parasympathetic: ACh > muscarinic receptor, IP3/Ca++

Sympathetic: NE > beta > cAMP

6

What cells secrete the fluid in the intestine?

Crypt Cells

7

What are the 3 rules of fluid reabsorption?

a. drive by active transport of Na+
b. Cl- follows Na+
c. water follows NaCl

8

During reabsorption, what is coupled with Na+?

Glucose and AAs.

9

Does Na follow Cl, or vice versa?

Secretion: Na follows Cl

Absorption: Cl follows Na

10

What are the 5 ways to test for colon cancer?

a. fecal occult blood testing
b. sigmoidoscopy
c. colonoscopy
d. virtual colonoscopy
e. genetic based stool testing

11

What are three types of poly shapes?

a. pedunculated: mushroom
b. sessile: just the mushroom cap
c. flat: height < 1/2 diameter

12

What are 4 genetic/chromosomal changes associated with colon cancer?

a. APC
b. P53
c. Kras
d. Chromosome 18

13

What are two types of inherited adenomatous polyp syndromes?

a. familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP)
b. Lynch Syndrome (HNPCC)

14

What gene is associated with FAP? Lynch Syndrome?

FAP: APC

Lynch: MMR

15

Lynch is associated with germline mutations in any one of which 5 genes?

a. MSH 2
b. MSH 6
c. MLH1
d. PMS1
e. PMS2

16

Where do Lynch symptoms first appear? Second?

Colon.

Extra-intestinal (uterus, ovary, stomach, ureter, pancreas, etc.)

17

What does GLUT5 transport? GLUT2? sglt1?

GLUT5: fructose
GLUT2: fructose and glucose
sglt1: glucose, galactose and Na+

18

What is the enzyme that turns trypsinogen into trypsin?

enterokinase.

19

Creatinine is the breakdown product of what? Which is the breakdown product of what?

Lean muscle > creatine > creatinine

20

What "-lase" is contained in the watery (serous) secretions?

alpha-amylase

21

Does a low flow rate result in a high or low tonicity in the salivary ducts?

Low flow = Low To-nicty

22

What genetic marker is occurs in 100% of celiac patients and 20-40% of the general population?

HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8

23

What are the three most important stimulants of gastrin secretion?

a. distention
b. AAs
c. peptides

24

What two neurotransmitters cause the release of gastrin?

a. Ach
b. GRP

25

What inhibits gastrin release? What inhibits this inhibitor?

Somatostatin. This is inhibited by low pH and parasympathetics.

26

What is the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome?

Tumors that secrete gastrin (gastromas). This leads to steatorrhea.

27

What does CCK do to the gallbladders?

Causes it to contract and causes the sphincter of Oddi to release.