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Opthamology > Glaucoma > Flashcards

Flashcards in Glaucoma Deck (28)
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1

Glaucoma defined as

irreversible progressive disease of the optic nerve

2

what % of the population will have glaucoma

1%

3

# 1 known modifiable risk factor for glaucoma

elevated IOP

4

where is aqeuous formed?

in ciliary body
drains through trabecular meshwork

5

The distribution of IOP is not gaussian --?

skewed towards right - more people wit higher pressures

6

not everyone with a pressure >21 has glaucoma - they are instead called

ocular hypertensives

7

to diagnose glaucoma do you need an elevated IOP

no - not necessary not sufficient

8

If a sibling or parent has open angle glaucoma - your risk is

2-3x higher

9

3 mechanisms for possible axonal loss of retinal ganglion cellls

1- mechanical injury
2- vascular injurt
3- excitotoxicity

10

Normal pressure does not

RULE out glaucoma

11

What is the cup to disc ratio in normal non-edematous nerve

<0.6

12

Significant optic nerve sign

notching/thinning of rim -

13

classic visual field defect in glaucoma

- arcuate defect
- paracentral defect
- nasal septal defect
- constricted field

14

acute angle closure glaucoma signs/symptoms

nausea/loss of vision
- head pain
- acute rise in IOP >60

15

Slit lamp findings in angle closure

- cornea cloudy
- angle closed
- cataract - frequently coexistent

16

To test for glaucoma 2 main things needed

1) test visual fields
2) check optic nerve

17

additional signs of angle closure glaucoma symptoms!

halos/rainbows around lights
blurred
red
dilated pupil
pain head/nausea/vomiting

18

Angle closure glaucoma happens when

you have high pressure, causing optic disc damage and visual field loss

19

Open angle patients compared with closed angle tend to be

Myopic vs Hyperopia in angle closure

20

Prevalence of open angle highest in

african american

21

prevalence of angle closure is highest in

Inuit and chinese

22

Which glaucoma is an opthalmological emergency

angle closure

23

Meds used in treatment of acute ACG

- give Beta blocker
alpha agonist
carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
Pilocarpine

24

precipitating factors that may lead to AACG

- Emotional stress
- Drugs that dilate pupil
- common cold/allergy meds
- Dim light

25

how do you treat glaucom

- reduce production
increase outflow

26

Chronic treatment examples for glaucoma therap

1- Prostaglandins
2- beta blocker
3- alpha agonist
4- carbonic anhydrase inhib

27

Angle closure treatment

parasympathomimetic

28

Emergency lowering of IOP

hyperosmotic