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Containerisations contribution to a shrinking world

- increased speed of transport of goods
- reduced unit cost to 1%
- increased FDI


Privatisation and market liberalisation in the UK

- conservative government started process of deregulation and privatisation 1979
- including British gas, British rail
- labour government removed Bank of England from direct government control
- legislative regulatory reform act 2006 to enable ministers to make adjustments


China's open door policy

- communist country (state controls means of production on behalf of the people)
- desire to encourage FDI
- 4 SEZ set up
- aimed to attract capital and business from external communities
- 2013 china worlds biggest trading nation


Jaguar Land Rover - outsourcing and offshoring

- uk's largest car manufacturer
- had 3 manufac sites in UK
- international manufac site India 2011 (gain access to emerging economies)
- 2012 joint partnership with Chinese company
- outsourcing to produce vehicles and engines
- expanded manufac to Rio and across Europe


Cargill - opening up new markets

- largest grain trader in world
- lends money to farmers
- runs grain transportation and storage business
- enables investment in infrastructure of food production
- built 9 animal feed mills in Vietnam
- creates demand for farmers
- investment in transport increasing connectedness
- spurs more development


North Korea - an isolated country

- following Korean War, split into 2 countries
- North Korea communist control
- adopted policy of eon comic and diplomatic self reliance
- to stop outside influence
- after years of mismanagement, NK relies on Chinese aid
- yet to have settlement with South Korea


Chinas role in global shift in manufacturing

- China's global share of trade risen to 10%
- 2002 US bought 26% of Brazil's exports
- china risen from 2-15% by 2010
- Us market share declined
- china now more important for brazil
- larger influence
- global shift to Asia


Benefits and costs of the global shift in Mumbai, India

- home to key industries - finance, nuclear power.
- infrastructure investment was required
- main airport expanded capacity 40mil passengers p/yr
- new airport sanctioned
- Nehru port handles containerisation
- HQ of 2 Indian railway zones
- rapid urbanisation = poverty + unemployment
- overcrowding
- 60% in slums


Environmental damage in china

- environmental regulations responsibility of local govts
- more interested in economic growth
- corruption hinders reinforcement
- 60% groundwater poor quality
- forests facing urban expansion
- land lost to desertification
- most polluted cities in china.


Deindustrialisation in Detroit, Michigan

- 1920s thriving car industry
- global shift
- car manufac -- japan
- leaving derelict land, depopulation, crime, unemployment
- lost quarter of pop
- bankrupt 2013
- murder rate highest of any US city, drug related


Social and environmental challenges in Karachi, Pakistan

- 5% pop growth p/yr
- migrants from rural or neighbouring countries
- half the pop lives in slums
- informal sector = low tax
- services provided by neighbourhoods pooling resources, inefficient
- poverty = crime + violence
- settlements also in dry river beds and landfill
- residents pay rent to gangs - supported by local govt
- no service or infrastructure


Russian oligarchs in 'londongrad'

- 1990's Soviet Union dissolved
- became commonwealth of independent states
- business people acquired soviet era industries
- these businesses made their new owners very rich
- especially those selling to china growing as result of global shift
- 'oligarchs' = wealth and political power
- Russian oligarchs bought homes in wealthy London boroughs
- 'londongrad'
- e.g. Roman abramovich
- migration and investment beneficial to UK


Low wage economic migration to Dubai

- 1/8 residents members of UAE
- many rich Indians live in Dubai
- 2005 Indian industrialist bought 100th floor of burj khalifa
- south Asian guest workers 60% of pop
- 12 hour shifts $5 a day
- many workers trapped in UAE by debts to agents for work visas
- motivation was to send remittances to families


The Disney corporation and Americanisation

- large tnc's mostly American
- promote brand globally
- so pushing American culture and values (Americanisation)
- e.g. Disney corp largest media comp
- promotes globally American values, traditions, morals


The Paralympic movement

- 1948 hosted sports comp for WW2 vets with spinal cord injuries
- 1960 first Paralympic Games
- globalisation of sports by key players
- can create opportunities for disadvantaged groups


Loss of tribal lifestyles in Papua New Guinea

- 7000 cultural groups
- rely on subsistence farming, hunting, fishing
- partly British/German colony 1884
- gained independence 1975
- exp PSE integration
- freedom of movement
- integration of plantation workers
- spread of Christianity and western culture
- intermarriage between different cult groups
= native language not passed on
= cultural erosion


Gender inequality index

- measures gender disparity
- reproductive health
- empowerment
- labour market participation


Air pollution indices

- Malaysia API (air pollutant index)
- measures sulphur, nitrogen, carbon monoxide
-if API exceeds 500, state of emergency


Immigration and changing face of the uk

- after WW2 UK received 500,000 migrants
- no intervening obstacles
- conflicts in former British colonies
- EU allowed 1mil migrants


Transboundary water conflict Nile basin

- rising demand for water, (increasing pop, and ind development)
- conflicting user needs (runs through 10 countries)
- 94% used by Sudan and Egypt
- Ethiopia need water for development
- Egypt fears storing water behind damn will reduce capacity and therefore power generated
- storing water in Ethiopia will reduce evaporation cooler cimate
- corrupt govt hinders cooperation


The great firewall of china

- internet regulations
- to prevent journalists and people communicating abroad
- signing petitions
- organising anti corruption protests


Winchester action on climate change

- winACC local group mitigate negative impacts of globali.
- presses for renewable energy
- helps people save money on energy in homes


Transition towns and sustainability

- totnes, UK 2006
- raise awareness of sustainable living
- aim to reduce energy usage
- community gardens
- repairing old items/recycling others waste
- totnes pound, encourage local business


The fair trade system

- promote fair terms of trade to benefit farmers and workers
- guarantees produced by small scale farmer organisation
- meets SEE standards
- large scale must protect workers basic rights
- allows to improve services, sanitation, infrastructure etc.