Flashcards in Globalisation Deck (35)
What is globalisation?
- Globalisation is the process by which the world is becoming increasingly interconnected as a
result of massively increased trade and cultural exchange.
How can you measure globalisation?
- KOF globalisation index (2002) measures extent to which countries are socially, politically and economically linked to others
- Kearney index uses measures of business activity, human capital, information exchange, cultural experience and political engagement.
- IMF's annual report on exchange arrangements and restrictions.
- KAOPEN index of openness to capital, how easy it is to invest and withdraw investment in different countries.
Why do levels of globalisation vary between countries?
- pattern of connection is not uniform across all countries, benefits are not evenly distributed.
- global hubs host TNC's and diverse populations, demographic flows, finance, trade all flow towards global hubs.
- infrastructure, transport and communications networks are focused in core areas, leading to more incentive for businesses to invest in those areas.
- internet connection also allows greater opportunities for businesses.
- offshoring and outsourcing come from the core.
What role do TNC’s play in the globalisation process?
- architects of globalisation ,bolt together different national markets with their supply chains and marketing strategies.
- import and export goods and services whilst making significant investments in foreign countries.
- increased sales and profit encourages TNC's to expand internationally
- outsourcing where a business makes a contract with another company to complete some of their work.
- offshoring where a company moves part of its operations to another country due to lower costs.
Why are some countries excluded from globalisation?
- isolation causes peripheral locations to remain switche doff from globalisation
- distance from market discouraging FDI
- government debt
What is the global shift and why did it occur?
- the changing economic fortunes of different world regions over time.
- the shift of manufacturing to Asia and outsourcing of services from developed to emerging economies means there is a greater share of economic activity which brings a greater share of global influence.
- the changing location of production is termed the global shift.
What impact has globalisation had on NIC’s? (positive, negative and SEE impacts)
- rapid industrialisation and urbanisation from global shift have caused pollution, over exploitation of resources and dumping of waste.
- speeds up development of infrastructure and services due to improved economy
- megacities traffic congestion, 75% of co2 emissions
What social impacts has globalisation had on poor countries?
- increased number of jobs and decreased unemployment
- which could improve economy slightly
- however low paid jobs in bad conditions have a negative social impact on quality of life
- tax towards government is not large due to low paid jobs.
How has globalisation impacted developed countries?
- deindustrialisation reduces number of jobs and increases derelict land unless the land is repurposed.
- highly skilled secondary workers may struggle to find jobs.
- unemployment increases causing depopulation as people seek opportunities elsewhere.
What is a megacity?
- city with a population of 10 million or more
What are the reasons for growth in mega cities
- driven by rural to urban migration due to underplay net, scarcity of goods, loss of farmland, pollution, conflicts.
- mass transportation has made movement easier.
- pull factors, more job opportunities, improved services and better quality of life.
What social and environmental challenges do rapidly growing urban areas create?
- overcrowding, causes pressure on resources whihc lead sto a poorer quality of life for many.
- poor housing, authorities cannot plan for mass migration so migrants are forced to live in poor conditions
- traffic congestion, rapid growth faster than the authorities can build new routes so congestion occurs.
- air pollution, concentration of solid fuel stoves, industrial fumes and waste, and emissions from vehicles.
How has international migration created global hub cities?
- when cities are strongly connected to similar places globally through trade, they experience flows of elite migrants.
- they may be affluent people whose investment is sought by countries through tax breaks, these people face few barriers because their immigration is considered by governments to be beneficial to economic growth.
- Nationality act 2006 created a five tier system for awarding entry visas tier 1 being for high value immigrants.
How has international migration deepened interdependence between regions?
What are the economic impacts of migration to the host country?
- filling of skills gaps and labour shortages.
- migrants contribute to economy as consumers
- more tax paying workers to support and offset an ageing population.
What are the economic impacts of migration to the host country?
- extra community policing and translation costs.
- need for extra school places and health services in areas of concentrated immigration
- pressure on rented sector housing market.
What are the economic impacts of migration to the source country?
- skills shortages in key areas of the economy
- demographic imbalance
- depopulation leading to dereliction.
What are the positive impacts of migration to the source country?
- reduced pressure on welfare spending
- reduction of workforce balanced by remittances
- returning migrants bring professional, social and political experience.
What is westernisation and how does it impact countries?
- Westernisation is the conversion to or adoption of western customs
How has globalisation increased opportunities for disadvantaged groups in emerging and
- globalisation has enabled mass migrations of people from different cultures.
- British nationality act 1948 granted subjects of the British empire the right to live and work in the UK.
- created push factors from former colonies to the uk, demand for labour in the UK after the Second World War provided a powerful pull factor.
- migration rules have been tightened since the 1960's and 1970's
What impact has cultural erosion had on the built and natural environment?
- the ease and frequency with which people move around the world leads to them adopting new clothes, way of speaking, values and traditions.
- this can lead to cultural erosion of built and natural environments.
- landscapes are shaped by our cultures e.g. Stonehenge (ancient culture), London dock lands (culture of today).
- as a result most cultural landscapes are mixed with traces of past and present cultures.
- developed countries e.g. The UK, protect their cultural landscapes, 400,000 listed buildings and 20,000 ancient monuments.
- emerging economies may have a limited capacity to protect cultural landscapes.
- LEDC's remain highly vulnerable to cultural economies.
Why are some groups opposed to globalisation?
- due to concern about cultural impacts and economic and environmental exploitation some groups oppose globalisation.
- concerns similiar to those expressed during the independence movements during the process of decolonisation. These groups are known as structuralist as they explain inequalities arising from globalisation e.g. Capital vs labour, men vs women.
- they argue that inequality in the global economy will only be resolved by structural change.
- other groups regard inequality in a globalised world as the product of winners and losers in global competition. Promote free trade and free markets as a means of eradicating inequality. They support globalisation because they believe that all countries will receive same benefits as western economies.
What economic measures can be used to measure development?
- GDP per capita (measures total value of goods and services produced in a country over 1 year)
- income equality (Lorenz curve - % of households x against % of income y) (gini coefficient - number between 0-1 )
What social measures can be used to measure development?
- HDI, quality of life, access to services, infant mortality rate, life expectancy.
What environmental indicators can be used to measure development?
- pollution levels
Has globalisation narrowed or widened the development gap?
- global inequality has begun to fall as poorer countries catch up with richer ones.
- 'global gini' measures scale of income disparities.
- income equality has widened in developed countries e.g. Germany and also emerging economies such as india.
- brazil and Latin America have had reduction in income inequality
How has globalisation led to a rise in extremism in Europe?
- right wing political parties that are arguing for controls on globalisation are gaining support
- groups of people such as lower middle class citizens and skilled and unskilled manual workers have a hostility towards immigration and ethnic diversity.
- popular extremist parties suggest minority groups e.g. Muslims pose an economic and major cultural threats to societies.
How has globalisation and development created trans boundary water conflicts?
- significant rising demand for water in the Nike basin, Ethiopia wants to use the Nike river for HEP plants and industrial development.
- high population rates are increasing demand.
- Egyptian population predicted to double to 150million by 2050
- diminishing supply of water due to desertification
- deteriorating water quality spreading waterborne diseases
- many conflicting user needs, 360 million people through 10 countries depending on it, waters are split 75/25 between Egypt and Sudan.
- however Ethiopia and Kenya need increased water allocation for their development.
- Egypt fears storing water behind the proposed damn will reduce capacity of its own lake nassar, reducing power generating capacity of egypts hydroelectric plant.
What attempts have been made to control the spread of globalisation?
- china have tried to control impact of globalisation through censorship.
- other countries have put limits on migration e.g. Japan