Flashcards in Regeneration Deck (58)
What is the function of a land?
The purpose/activity that a place serves to us.
Why do places change their functions over time?
- physical factors
- accessibility and connectedness
- historical development
- local and national planning
Impacts of a change of function of a place?
- industrialisation, loss of primary jobs leading to deprivation.
- tourism, increase income and change perception, increase jobs.
How can changes in function be measured?
- employment structure
- demographic characteristics
- land use
- local residents and employers
How does a change in function cause change in employment?
- change in function due to industrialisation/deindustrialisation can lead to a switch in employment industry e.g. During 1980's deindustrialisation occurred in the uk causing primary industry (mining) to decrease and tertiary to increase.
How does a change in function cause demographic changes?
- change in function for example at Happisburgh Norfolk from primary to tertiary means that agricultural livelihood is lacking and a lack of opportunities could lead to the younger population leaving in search of quaternary high paid jobs.
How does a change in function cause deprivation?
- a change in function due to physical factors e.g. Floods for example Carlisle can lead to less business start ups due to the risk of floods, this can lead to a lack of jobs and therefore less tax which means less money is invested into the area so health and education services decline, negative multiplier effect.
What is the south east plan
- government allocate money to south east region
- Woking town centre primary retail centre identified as centre for significant change.
- Woking needs to create 5840 new dwellings
How are young people impacted by influences on Woking
- more employment opportunities
- better night life and services
- better transport links
How are families impacted by changes in Woking
- higher income due to higher paid jobs, provided by tncs such as mclaren (quaternary, quinary)
How are commuters impacted by changes in Woking
- better transport links + Heathrow easily accessible
- allows tncs to locate
How are the elderly impacted by changes in Woking
- higher pollution due to congestion
- too busy and loud
- may move if younger people are moving into Woking to find work opportunities
What regional influences have impacted wokings functions?
- south east plan
- Woking classed as hub town due to economic activity and transport interchange
- Woking is focus for improvements to transport network and retail and infrastructure e.g. New m&s investment
What has the Surrey strategic partnership identified
- identified maybury and sheerwater as priority places
- subject to multiple interventions by county and local partners
What different groups in woking are impacted by the changes?
What national/international influences have impacted workings functions?
- largest employer in Woking is mclaren group
- Relaxation of greenbelt laws
- TNCs such as Alent plc (chemical + assembly materials), SABmiller brewers HQ (closure of woking branch loss of 500 jobs).
How have the economic and social changes inferences people's identity in woking?
- workings function is now commercial and retail services
- acts as commuter town for those working in London
Why has regeneration in sheerwater caused conflicts
- price of living will increase
- locals will be forced out of sheerwater
- regeneration not aimed at the locals
What is the regeneration strategy for sheerwater
- 3mil spent
- aim to attract higher class type of person by regenerating flats, schools, shops.
What characteristics do successful areas have?
- low unemployment
- good health/education services
- low deprivation
- good governance
What characteristics do unsuccessful areas have?
- high crime rate
- high deprivation
- high unemployment
- poor services
How are priorities for regeneration decided?
- based on the current problems and focused around improving sustainability.
- local and national governments choose where money should be spent to reduce economic and social inequalities.
Why do levels of engagement in local communities vary? What impact does this have?
- social deprivation or inequality can cause some to feel excluded and therefore have low levels of engagement. E.g. The english defence league organise protests against Muslim communities which leads to muslims feeling isolated.
Why do conflicts occur among contrasting community groups concerning regeneration?
- conflicts occur between different groups of people as they have different views of what priorities of regeneration should be for their area e.g. Different ethnicities or ages may have different views.
What statistical evidence is there for a need for regeneration in our local area?
- Tottenham haringey had economic decline since the 1970's with highest unemployment in the city, 28 mil invested in scheme to regenerate.
How does media provide contrasting evidence for the need for regeneration our area?
- qualitative sources such as newspapers have political agendas and so therefore show sympathy towards certain groups of people and support their needs for regeneration.
What role does government policy play in infrastructure investment?
- responsible for considering levels of inequality and improving infrastructure to reduce this e.g. North south divide, government trying to create northern powerhouse, better rail links needed.
- middlesborough to Newcastle 90 minutes, same distance from Chelmsford to london 36 minutes.
How does govt policy maintain growth and improve accessibility to regenerated regions?
- High speed rail 2 connecting north south.
- northern hub project, improved rail networks around Manchester so journey times have been decreased - allows business to increase.
What impact do planning laws, house building targets, permission for fracking, have on economic
regeneration in rural areas?
- aim to limit the negative impact of development and regeneration on social economic and natural environment.
- lack of housing supply has caused increase in prices, pressure to get builders due to house building targets.
- 37 million m3 of shale gas in north of engladn alone, if fracking was permitted an increase in primary industry jobs and decrease in unemployment would occur increasing tax and economic regeneration.