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Edexcel Geography Human AS > Regeneration > Flashcards

Flashcards in Regeneration Deck (58)
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1
Q

What is the function of a land?

A

The purpose/activity that a place serves to us.

2
Q

Why do places change their functions over time?

A
  • physical factors
  • accessibility and connectedness
  • historical development
  • local and national planning
  • industry
3
Q

Impacts of a change of function of a place?

A
  • industrialisation, loss of primary jobs leading to deprivation.
  • tourism, increase income and change perception, increase jobs.
4
Q

How can changes in function be measured?

A
  • employment structure
  • demographic characteristics
  • land use
  • local residents and employers
5
Q

How does a change in function cause change in employment?

A
  • change in function due to industrialisation/deindustrialisation can lead to a switch in employment industry e.g. During 1980’s deindustrialisation occurred in the uk causing primary industry (mining) to decrease and tertiary to increase.
6
Q

How does a change in function cause demographic changes?

A
  • change in function for example at Happisburgh Norfolk from primary to tertiary means that agricultural livelihood is lacking and a lack of opportunities could lead to the younger population leaving in search of quaternary high paid jobs.
7
Q

How does a change in function cause deprivation?

A
  • a change in function due to physical factors e.g. Floods for example Carlisle can lead to less business start ups due to the risk of floods, this can lead to a lack of jobs and therefore less tax which means less money is invested into the area so health and education services decline, negative multiplier effect.
8
Q

What is the south east plan

A
  • government allocate money to south east region
  • Woking town centre primary retail centre identified as centre for significant change.
  • Woking needs to create 5840 new dwellings
9
Q

How are young people impacted by influences on Woking

A
  • more employment opportunities
  • better night life and services
  • better transport links
10
Q

How are families impacted by changes in Woking

A
  • higher income due to higher paid jobs, provided by tncs such as mclaren (quaternary, quinary)
11
Q

How are commuters impacted by changes in Woking

A
  • better transport links + Heathrow easily accessible

- allows tncs to locate

11
Q

How are the elderly impacted by changes in Woking

A
  • higher pollution due to congestion
  • too busy and loud
  • may move if younger people are moving into Woking to find work opportunities
12
Q

What regional influences have impacted wokings functions?

A
  • south east plan
  • Woking classed as hub town due to economic activity and transport interchange
  • Woking is focus for improvements to transport network and retail and infrastructure e.g. New m&s investment
13
Q

What has the Surrey strategic partnership identified

A
  • identified maybury and sheerwater as priority places

- subject to multiple interventions by county and local partners

14
Q

What different groups in woking are impacted by the changes?

A

young people
Families
Commuters
Elderly

15
Q

What national/international influences have impacted workings functions?

A
  • largest employer in Woking is mclaren group
  • Relaxation of greenbelt laws
  • TNCs such as Alent plc (chemical + assembly materials), SABmiller brewers HQ (closure of woking branch loss of 500 jobs).
16
Q

How have the economic and social changes inferences people’s identity in woking?

A
  • workings function is now commercial and retail services

- acts as commuter town for those working in London

17
Q

Why has regeneration in sheerwater caused conflicts

A
  • price of living will increase
  • locals will be forced out of sheerwater
  • regeneration not aimed at the locals
18
Q

What is the regeneration strategy for sheerwater

A
  • 3mil spent

- aim to attract higher class type of person by regenerating flats, schools, shops.

19
Q

What characteristics do successful areas have?

A
  • low unemployment
  • good health/education services
  • low deprivation
  • good governance
20
Q

What characteristics do unsuccessful areas have?

A
  • high crime rate
  • high deprivation
  • high unemployment
  • poor services
21
Q

How are priorities for regeneration decided?

A
  • based on the current problems and focused around improving sustainability.
  • local and national governments choose where money should be spent to reduce economic and social inequalities.
22
Q

Why do levels of engagement in local communities vary? What impact does this have?

A
  • social deprivation or inequality can cause some to feel excluded and therefore have low levels of engagement. E.g. The english defence league organise protests against Muslim communities which leads to muslims feeling isolated.
23
Q

Why do conflicts occur among contrasting community groups concerning regeneration?

A
  • conflicts occur between different groups of people as they have different views of what priorities of regeneration should be for their area e.g. Different ethnicities or ages may have different views.
24
Q

What statistical evidence is there for a need for regeneration in our local area?

A
  • Tottenham haringey had economic decline since the 1970’s with highest unemployment in the city, 28 mil invested in scheme to regenerate.
25
Q

How does media provide contrasting evidence for the need for regeneration our area?

A
  • qualitative sources such as newspapers have political agendas and so therefore show sympathy towards certain groups of people and support their needs for regeneration.
26
Q

What role does government policy play in infrastructure investment?

A
  • responsible for considering levels of inequality and improving infrastructure to reduce this e.g. North south divide, government trying to create northern powerhouse, better rail links needed.
  • middlesborough to Newcastle 90 minutes, same distance from Chelmsford to london 36 minutes.
27
Q

How does govt policy maintain growth and improve accessibility to regenerated regions?

A
  • High speed rail 2 connecting north south.
  • northern hub project, improved rail networks around Manchester so journey times have been decreased - allows business to increase.
28
Q

What impact do planning laws, house building targets, permission for fracking, have on economic
regeneration in rural areas?

A
  • aim to limit the negative impact of development and regeneration on social economic and natural environment.
  • lack of housing supply has caused increase in prices, pressure to get builders due to house building targets.
  • 37 million m3 of shale gas in north of engladn alone, if fracking was permitted an increase in primary industry jobs and decrease in unemployment would occur increasing tax and economic regeneration.
29
Q

What impact does international migration and the deregulation of capital markets have on direct
and indirect investment in the UK?

A
  • deregulation of markets has made it easier for companies to locate in the uk and for FDI
  • migration has increased the amount of businesses set up allowing regeneration of areas such as Corby as crime halved.
30
Q

What do local governments do to create sympathetic business environments for domestic and
foreign investors?

A
  • local governments encourage innovation and investment by ensuring that the right infrastructure is in place for business start ups and established companies in Europe.
  • high tech and medical technology companies have thrived e.g. Claritest on the Norwich research park.
31
Q

What role to enterprise zones and science parks play in attracting domestic and foreign
investors?

A
  • Cambridge science park spend with start up companies initially but attracted tnc’s such as Toshiba and Microsoft were attracted due to the technological expertise of the university.
  • infrastructure attracts companies
32
Q

What is a local interest group?

A
  • An Organized group that tries to influence government decisions to adopt certain policies.
33
Q

What role do local interest groups play in regeneration?

A
  • council must satisfy many different local interest groups, e.g. Local businesses represented by the chamber of commerce want economic growth if it means destroying old buildings while local people may want to keep historic or cultural buildings.
34
Q

What issues arise when local interest groups disagree?

A
  • disagreements can cause conflicts which can make decision making slower which stalls the regeneration scheme and could lead to it falling through.
35
Q

What strategies can be used for urban and rural regeneration?

A
  • contemporary regeneration strategies e.g. (Urban) Olympic park, london the Olympic village converted into 2800 flats, intending to have offices in the park creating 25000 new jobs.
  • (rural) Powys regeneration establishing transition towns in Machynlleth with own currency to encourage spending in local area. High speed broadband to allow homeworking and reverse out-migration also encourages business - diversification in the rural economy. Also investment in carbon storage, water regulation no energy efficiency of housing.
36
Q

What is rebranding?

A
  • The way in which a place is redeveloped and re- marketed so that it gains a new
    identity.
37
Q

How can a variety of media be used to make urban and rural areas more attractive for potential
investors?

A
  • the the branding and image of the place e.g. New York is branded as ‘the big apple’ and ‘the city that never sleeps’ both make New York seem an attractive place to set up a business
38
Q

How does rebranding in deindustrialised cities create attractive spaces by utilising industrial
heritage?

A
  • iconic landmarks e.g. The titanic quarter in Belfast named after the Titanic has been developed to have luxury shops, modern workspace and a university campus with Belfast harbour operating as a private company providing logistical framework for successful trade. The Titanic Belfast centre welcomed 1 Million visitors in the first year 70% from outside Northern Ireland. £105 million additional tourism, now high demand for flats.
39
Q

How can this be used to attract national and international visitors?

A
  • the industrial heritage e.g. The Titanic in Belfast attracts international visitors with 70% of visitors coming from outside Northern Ireland.
  • luxury shops and postmodern workspace attracts visitors and businesses. Land of the giants, an outdoor arts venue is now located in the area.
40
Q

What range of rebranding strategies are used in rural areas?

A
  • preservation of cultural landscapes e.g. Bronte country in West Yorkshire have fair trade way links which links fair trade villages in Bradford taking tourists thought the historical sites that appear in the Bronte sisters books (wuthering Heights).
  • diversification e.g. Bronte country farms took advantage of EU grants and subsidies to diversify their use of land and create specialised products for example skipbridge farm which is now a successful wedding venue and a bed and breakfast.
41
Q

How do these strategies make rural areas more attractive to national and international tourists
and visitors?

A
  • attracts tourists as rebranding means that the area is not just a historical site but also offers urban services such as bed and breakfast, shops, restaurants etc.
42
Q

How can the success of economic regeneration be assessed?

A
  • income
  • poverty
  • employment
    E.g. Census data, neighbourhood statistics, historical and current data
43
Q

How can social progress be measured between different areas?

A
  • reduction in inequality/deprivation
  • demographic changes
    E.g. Interviews, social media, blog entries, newspaper accounts.
43
Q

How can the success of environmental regeneration be assessed?

A
  • pollution levels
  • abandoned and derelict land
    E.g. Photo comparisons, fieldwork EQS and pollution indicators, drosscape (an urban design framework which guides surveys).
44
Q

What criteria is used by different stakeholders when judging the success of urban regeneration?

A
  • economic growth, high levels of employment

- social progress, equality and deprivation

44
Q

What criteria is used by different stakeholders when judging the success of rural regeneration?

A
  • opinions of those living, social aspects such as deprivation and equality mainly.
  • also living environment e.g. Pollution levels and levels of derelict land.
45
Q

How do physical factors change the function of a place over time?

A
  • coastal recession ruins livelihood of agricultural workers

- flooding, climate change can change land use decisions

46
Q

How does accessibility and connectedness change the function of a place over time?

A
  • better transport links e.g. To london means more commuters in suburbs such as in Essex and Kent
  • regional airports e.g. Newcastle leads to increased immigration
47
Q

How does local and national planning change the function of a place over time?

A
  • garden cities e.g. Bicester up to 13,000 new homes and new railway station, now a retail outlet.
49
Q

How does historical development change the function of a place over time?

A
  • transition town projects to protect local culture and history whilst developing into a different function e.g. Totnes establishment of local currency to help business thrive and now bridging point whilst still a cultural attraction.
50
Q

How has globalisation and deindustrialisation changed function of place over time?

A
  • more cost effective to relocate in countries with cheaper land and labour costs.
  • closure of factories leads to change in employment structure and function.
53
Q

Two methods of analysing trends in data

A
  • scatter graphs

- spearman ranks

54
Q

Why is shearwater and may bury subject to regeneration?

A
  • Surrey strategic partnership identified as a priority due to:
    26% have no qualifications
    24% social housing
    40%+ are economically inactive
55
Q

Minehead problems and concerns?

A
  • deprived area
  • 4/10 workers under min wage
  • 56th most deprived local authority.
56
Q

Decline in minehead

A
  • Global shift reduced business of buttons
  • originally exporter of fish and coal
  • ageing population brain drain
  • Hinkley point nuclear reactor closure creating derelict land and reducing employment.
57
Q

Decline in Minehead

A
  • Global shift reduced business of buttons
  • originally exporter of fish and coal
  • ageing population brain drain
  • Hinkley point nuclear reactor closure creating derelict land and reducing employment.
58
Q

Priorities in Minehead

A
  • Community employment hub to stimulate employment.
  • Improved rail connections with opportunity to extend to main rail links (reduce isolation).
  • Increase tourism investment in town centre.