Flashcards in Glossary Deck (117)
a test which analyzes arterial blood for oxygen, carbon dioxide and bicarbonate content in addition to blood pH.
ABG - Arterial blood gas
This test is used to determine the effectiveness of respiration.
ABG - Arterial blood gas
Unique number given for each test request. This number identifies a specimen, as long as it remains in the laboratory.
Normally it is found in the human fetus, but abnormal levels of ____ may indicate a neural tube defect in an infant or another fetal developmental problem. The test is performed on maternal serum. If results are abnormal, a test on the amniotic fluid will be used to confirm the results.
AFP - alpha-fetoprotein
When a specimen is collected it may need to be divided to run several tests on it. Each ___ is a fraction of the specimen. Each ___ has its own tube for testing and is labeled with the same information as the original specimen.
The practice of using antiseptics to eliminate the microorganism that cause disease
This is used if the results are needed soon but not to present the patient from dying
The state of being free from disease-causing contaminants (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites) or, preventing contact with microorganisms. This term often refers to those practices used to promote or induce ___ in an operative field in surgery or medicine to prevent infection.
The absence of microorganisms.
The large vein on the inner-side of the biceps often chosen for intravenous injections and blood drawing.
The basis of tort, in the case, is the unprivileged touching of one person by another. When a procedure is to be performed on a patient they must give consent in full knowledge of the procedure and the risks it may entail (informed consent).
Intentional touching of a patient without their consent.
The key element is that the touching is unauthorized, not that is be intended to harm the person; lack of consent.
A test done to ascertain platelet function. A small incision is made in the forearm and a special paper is applied to the wound and then timed to see how long it takes the platelets to forma "plug" and stop the bleeding. Aspirin will affect results.
The conversion of blood from a liquid form to a solid through the process of coagulation.
A thrombus is a clot which forms inside of a blood vessel. If that clot moves inside the vessel, it is referred to as an embolus.
An infection transmitted from blood to blood
blood borne infection
A small needle with two plastic wings attached. A long 6-12" plastic tubing is attached. The entry angle should be 5 degrees.
A convenient ready-to-use intermediate level surface disinfectant that is effective against TB, HBV, HCV, viruses (hydrophilic and lipophilic), bacteria (including MRSA and VRE) and fungi. It can be used in the NICU operating rooms, isolation rooms, patient care areas and laboratories. When used as directed, it will also effectively clean and decontaminate critical and semi-critical instrumental.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
A bacteria that is found in all things. This bacteria inside of our bodies can be triggered by taking antibiotics which then causes colitis, and inflammation of the colon.
C. Diff - Clostridium Dficile
____ refers to tracking each and every individual who has had access to or has been in possession of something. In medicine this often refers to the tracking of samples that will be used in criminal proceedings such as DUI cases or other criminal activity. ____ guidelines also apply to drug screenings, forensic studies, blood alcohol tests and paternity testing.
Chain of Custody
_______ are federal regulatory standards that apply to all clinical laboratory testing performed on humans in the US (with the exception of clinical trials and basic research). A clinical laboratory is defined by ____ as any facility which performs laboratory testing on specimens obtained from humans for the purpose of providing information for health assessments and for the diagnosis, prevention, or treatment of disease.
Each facility is given a unique number. All medicare claims for laboratory services must include the ____ number for the laboratory.
Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments
Tests can be _____ under _____ if they are determined to be "simple tests with an insignificant risk of an erroneous result".
A volunteer-driven, membership-supported, not-for-profit, standards development organization. ___ promotes the development and use of voluntary laboratory consensus standards and guidelines within the health care community.
CLSI - clinical and laboratory standards institute
The number of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets (per cubic millimeter) that are present in a patient's sample of blood is determined. Also included is the hematocrit (%), hemoglobin concentration (gm%), and the differential. The most common test done on the blood.
Complete Blood Count - CBC
The blood test has no fasting requirements but is preferably collected at the time the urine collection is completed. The ____ 24-hour urine test requires a patient void urine at 8am and discard the specimen. then collect all urine in the 24-hour period, ending with the final collection at 8am the next morning. Specimens must be handled and stored (refrigerated) correctly.
It is important to stay hydrated during the period of specimen collection. Exercise should be avoided prior to and during the period of specimen collection.
a blood test marker for inflammation in the body. ___ is produced in the liver and its level is measured by testing the blood. ___ is classified as an acute-phase reactant, which means that its levels will rise in response to inflammation. this test can be drawn in a serum separator tube or lavender top tube depending on if serum or plasma is required for the test.
C-reactive protein (CRP)
bluish skin color due to lack of oxygen
A medical term used to describe excessive, abnormal sweating in relation to your environment and activity level.
The measuring of a body's ability to metabolize certain substances, monitoring changes in the patients condition within a 24-hour period.
This test is drawn in a light blue - sodium citrate tube. This test is used to help rule out the presence of an inappropriate blood clot (thrombus). Some of the conditions that the ___ test is used to help rule out include: deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE).
A calcium-binding agent that is used as an anticoagulant for laboratory blood specimens.
EDTA - ethylenediaminetetraacetate or potassium oxalate
another name for alcohol in blood testing
What is ETOH?
A unit that attaches to a water supply and provide a gentle stream of water; used for emergency irrigation to remove contaminants from the ocular area. ____ are a necessary back up to minimize the effects of accident exposure to chemical and other irritants.
The protein formed during normal blood clotting that is the essence of the clot.
The protein from which fibrin is formed/generated in normal blood clotting
Relative to venipuncture, the appearance of a small amount of blood in the neck of a syringe or the tubing of a butterfly. This is a sign that the vein has been properly accessed.
an inanimate object that transports microorganisms
what are the formed elements? (3)
red blood cells, white blood cells, and platletes
a rare genetic metabolic disorder that affects an individual's ability to metabolize the sugar galactose properly.
this is an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance.
Frequency is about 1 in every 60,000 births.
Needle diameter is measured by ____
the branch of medicine dealing with the diseases, debilities and care of aged persons
This law deals with the rendering of first aid by health care professionals at the scene of an accident or sudden injury. It encourages health care professionals to provide medical care within the scope of their training without fear of being sued for negligence.
Good Samaritan Law
The sugar measured in blood and urine specimens to determine the presence or absence of diabetes. ____ is the end product of carbohydrate metabolism and is the chief source of energy for all living organisms. Patients with diabetes use a ____ meter to measure their blood sugar anywhere from 1-5 times daily.
A device that individuals with diabetes use to measure the amount of sugar in their bloodstream. A phlebotomy technician should perform a quality control test on a ___ every day the ___ is used to guarantee that readings are accurate and consistent.
Glucose Meter or Glucometer
This is a breath test, carbon isotope-urea breath test or urea breath test
Helicobacter pylori - H Pylori
Up to 2 weeks before this test you need to stop taking antibiotics, bismuth medicines such as peptobismol and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs)
Helicobacter pylori - H Pylori
during this test you swallow a special substance that has urea.
Helicobacter pylori - H Pylori
____ is a waste product the body produces as it breaks down protein.
True or false: it is okay for the patient to eat and drink between baseline H Pylori breath test and the final breath test
the ratio of the total red blood cell volume to the total blood volume and expressed as a percentage
a localized collection of blood within tissues due to leakage from the wall of a blood vessel producing a bluish discoloration (ecchymosis) and pain.
blood in the urine
A device used for POCT regarding PT/INR would be the _____. It is a comprehensive point-of-care coagulation monitoring system.
hemochron/ hemochron signature elite
Increased concentration of cells and solids in the blood usually resulting from loss of fluid to the tissues. This condition is caused by the filtration of plasma into body tissues and often created by dehydration.
The oxygen carrying pigment of the red blood cells.
The breaking of red blood cell membrane releasing free hemoglobin into the circulating blood.
In phlebotomy this is usually the result of using a smaller needle than should have been used, too great of suction from a large tube or the needle up against the vein wall causing the cells to have a smaller than normal entry point into the needle thereby breaking as they all force into the needle.
The arrest of bleeding, whether it be by normal vasoconstriction (the vessel walls closing temporarily) by an abnormal obstruction (such as plaque) or by coagulation or surgical means (such as ligation).
This test indicates the average level of blood sugar over a 2-3 month window. It is customarily drawn in a Lavender tube.
HbA1c (listed as HgA1c in the book but that is wrong)
It is important in regards to ____ policy to get all consent/acknowledgment in writing. In accordance with ___ the patient has a right to their information remaining private and protected.
What does HIPAA stand for?
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996
What is the priory goal of HIPPA?
to make it easier for people to keep health insurance, protect the confidentiality and security of healthcare information and help the healthcare industry control administrative costs.
abnormally high blood sugar
abnormally low blood sugar
Resulting from the activity of a health care provider or institution; said of any adverse condition in a patient resulting from treatment by a physician, nurse, or allied health professional.
A type of anemia resulting from repeated blood collection for diagnostic testing.
What is the key to preventing iatrogenic anemia?
blood conservation, by avoiding taking blood samples unless absolutely necessary, collecting minimum volume, reducing frequency of blood sampling and using small blood volume containers.
removal of more than ____% of blood in iatrogenic anemics patients blood can be life threatening.
An infection transmitted through body fluids to blood
giving the patient adequate information concerning the method, risk, and consequences for a specific procedure including, its risks, expected outcomes and alternatives.
This is the release of medical records without the patient's knowledge and permission.
invasion of privacy
in words that someone who is not an expert can understand
After blood is spun and separated in a centrifuge the serum/plasma portion is milky in appearance. Hyperlipidemia would cause the blood to be ___. Samples are most likely to be ____ if the patient was not fasting prior to collection.
___ is used to order tests, print labels for specimens and enter test results. ___ can be customized to specific laboratory requirements.
LIS, Laboratory information system
What does MSDS stand for?
Material Safety Data Sheet
a document that contains information on the potential health effects of exposure to chemicals or other potentially dangerous substances, and gives an explanation on safe working procedures when handling chemical products.
It contains hazard evaluation on the use, storage, handling, and emergency procedures related to that material. It is intended to tell what the hazards of the products are, how to use the product safely, what to expect if the recommendations are not followed, what to do if accidents occur, how to recognize symptoms of overexposure and what to do is such incidents occur.
MSDS: Material Safety Data Sheet
a ____ is a respiratory protective device designed to achieve a very close facial fit and very efficient filtration of airborne particles. The ____ designation means that when subjected to careful testing, the respirator blocks at least 95% of very small (0.3 microns) test particles. The technician is required by the CDC to wear an ___ when working with patients who have active tuberculosis.
N95 respirator mask
What does NCCLS stand for?
National Center for Clinical Laboratory Standards
This agency is a national organization that establishes standards for phlebotomy procedures
National Center for Clinical Laboratory Standards - NCCLS
now called The Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI)
This is the failure to exercise the standard of care that a reasonable person would give under similar circumstances and someone suffers injury because of another's failure to live up to a required duty of care.
What are the four elements of negligence (4Ds)
1. Duty:duty of care
2. Derelict: breach of duty of care
3. Direct cause: legally recognizable injury occurs as a result of breach of duty care
4. Damage: the wrongful activity must have caused the injury or harm that occurred
Of, relating to or affecting the newborn and especially the human infant during the first month after birth
healthcare setting acquired infections
Patients are not allowed food or drink, including water. This restriction is usually placed on a patient before and after a procedure.
non per os or nil per os, nothing by mouth
The study and treatment of cancer
This test is used to detect the presence of parasites in a stool sample and help diagnose infection in the digestive tract
ova and parasite
what does OSHA stand for?
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
an agency of the US government under the department of labor with the responsibility of ensuring safety at work and a healthful work environment.
_____ mission is to prevent work-related injuries, illnesses, and deaths.
to examine or feel using the fingers of the non-dominant hand. In relation to venipuncture, this technique is used to "feel" veins.
The technique is used to determine the size, depth and direction of a vein.
This is the key concept of HIPAA. All patients have a right to privacy and all information should remain privileged.
Discuss patient information only with a patient's physician or office personnel that need certain information to do their job. Obtain a singed consent form to release medical information to the insurance company or other individuals.
these are tiny non-raised red spots that appear on the skin from the rupturing of capillaries due to the tourniquets being left on too long or too tight
Inflammation of a vein as a result of repeated venipuncture on that vein.
The fluid portion of the blood in which the cellular components are suspended. Contains clotting factors.
True or false: plasma and serum are the same
AKA thrombocyte, this is a particulate component of the blood, approximately 2-4 microns in diameter is known for its involvement in blood coagulation. This structure which has no nucleus or DNA is formed by breaking off from the cytoplasm of the parent cell, known as megakaryocyte in bone marrow.
Under normal conditions ____ will aggregate at the site of a break-in vascular integrity forming the beginning stages of a clot. Normal ____ counts range from 150,000-450-000/cm3
Defined as diagnostic testing at or near the site of patient care. The driving notion behind ____ is to bring the test conveniently and immediately to the patient. This increases the likelihood that the patient will receive the results in a timely manner.
point of care testing (POCT)
A program that guarantees quality patient care by tracking the outcomes through scheduled audits in which areas of the hospital look at the appropriateness, applicability, and timeliness of patient care.
A ____ program is a continuous program established by the healthcare facility, which will provide guidelines protocols, and continuing education for their employees to show ongoing competence. Quality control are the steps or procedure we do to ensure___.
Quality Assurance (QA)
Checking expiration dates, monitoring glucose monitors, keeping log sheets of refrigerator temperatures, calibrating instruments etc are examples of ______.
Quality Assurance (QA)
____ testing procedures provides assurance that the test performs as expected and alerts the user when problems occur. ___ testing is designed to detect problems that might arise because of operator error, reagent or test kit deterioration, instrument malfunction or improper environmental conditions.
Quality control testing
what does QNS stand for?
Quantity not sufficient
When drawing blood, you do not get enough blood for the lab to perform the test or tests indicated on the requisition.
Quantity not sufficient
One of the solid components of the blood, which is normally a biconcave disc without a nucleus. This is the component of the blood that contains hemoglobin, which is responsible for oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange.
A ____ is performed as part of a complete blood count and ranges from 4,500,000 - 5,000,000 __ per cubic millimeter.
Red Blood Cells (RBCs)
A hardening, especially from inflammation and certain disease states. Though ___ may occur in may areas of the body, the term is most often associated with blood vessels.
This is a systemic infection associated with the presence of pathogenic organisms introduced during a venipuncture.
Referring to blood, the clear liquid portion of blood that separates out after clotting has taken place. After clotting has occurred ___ is fibrinogen deficient, contrast to plasma.
Means immediately. It describes the need for a specimen or test to be done immediately in response to critical situations with the possibility of the test results preventing a patient's death.
This is a blood clot usually formed as a consequence of insufficient pressure applied after the withdrawal of a needle
a constrictive band placed over an extremity to distend veins for the purpose of blood aspiration or intravenous injections.
A substance sometimes found in the blood, other body fluids, or tissues. Examples include CA 125, CA 15-3, CEA, and PSA.
Sometimes called biomarkers.
The name used to describe a prevention strategy in which all blood and potentially infectious materials are treated as if they are infectious regardless of the perceived status of the source individual. In other words, whether or not you think the blood/body fluid is infected with blood-borne pathogens, you treat it as if it is. This approach is used in all situation where exposure to blood or potentially infectious materials is possible. This also means that certain engineering and work practice controls shall always be utilized in situation where exposure may occur.
A federally and internationally registered trademark owned by BD that is used in connection with a complete system of tubes, needles and needle holders, sharps collectors and safety devices in blood collection.
This is the case when a person is read a verbal version of a consent form and then they give their ____ consent in place of written consent to participate.
The number of leukocytes found in the peripheral blood and measured per cubic millimeter.
white cell count
This type of blood has had none of the elements removed. It is collected from a donor for the purpose of blood replenishment for a recipient.
laying on back
putting on PPE