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Flashcards in Glossary Deck (117)
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1

a test which analyzes arterial blood for oxygen, carbon dioxide and bicarbonate content in addition to blood pH.

ABG - Arterial blood gas

2

This test is used to determine the effectiveness of respiration.

ABG - Arterial blood gas

3

Unique number given for each test request. This number identifies a specimen, as long as it remains in the laboratory.

Accession Number

4

Normally it is found in the human fetus, but abnormal levels of ____ may indicate a neural tube defect in an infant or another fetal developmental problem. The test is performed on maternal serum. If results are abnormal, a test on the amniotic fluid will be used to confirm the results.

AFP - alpha-fetoprotein

5

When a specimen is collected it may need to be divided to run several tests on it. Each ___ is a fraction of the specimen. Each ___ has its own tube for testing and is labeled with the same information as the original specimen.

aliquot

6

The practice of using antiseptics to eliminate the microorganism that cause disease

Antisepsis

7

This is used if the results are needed soon but not to present the patient from dying

ASAP

8

The state of being free from disease-causing contaminants (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites) or, preventing contact with microorganisms. This term often refers to those practices used to promote or induce ___ in an operative field in surgery or medicine to prevent infection.

Asepsis

9

The absence of microorganisms.

Aseptic

10

The large vein on the inner-side of the biceps often chosen for intravenous injections and blood drawing.

Basilic vein

11

The basis of tort, in the case, is the unprivileged touching of one person by another. When a procedure is to be performed on a patient they must give consent in full knowledge of the procedure and the risks it may entail (informed consent).

Intentional touching of a patient without their consent.

The key element is that the touching is unauthorized, not that is be intended to harm the person; lack of consent.

battery

12

A test done to ascertain platelet function. A small incision is made in the forearm and a special paper is applied to the wound and then timed to see how long it takes the platelets to forma "plug" and stop the bleeding. Aspirin will affect results.

Bleeding time

13

The conversion of blood from a liquid form to a solid through the process of coagulation.

blood clot

A thrombus is a clot which forms inside of a blood vessel. If that clot moves inside the vessel, it is referred to as an embolus.

14

An infection transmitted from blood to blood

blood borne infection

15

A small needle with two plastic wings attached. A long 6-12" plastic tubing is attached. The entry angle should be 5 degrees.

Butterfly

16

A convenient ready-to-use intermediate level surface disinfectant that is effective against TB, HBV, HCV, viruses (hydrophilic and lipophilic), bacteria (including MRSA and VRE) and fungi. It can be used in the NICU operating rooms, isolation rooms, patient care areas and laboratories. When used as directed, it will also effectively clean and decontaminate critical and semi-critical instrumental.

CaviCide

17

CDC

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

18

A bacteria that is found in all things. This bacteria inside of our bodies can be triggered by taking antibiotics which then causes colitis, and inflammation of the colon.

C. Diff - Clostridium Dficile

19

____ refers to tracking each and every individual who has had access to or has been in possession of something. In medicine this often refers to the tracking of samples that will be used in criminal proceedings such as DUI cases or other criminal activity. ____ guidelines also apply to drug screenings, forensic studies, blood alcohol tests and paternity testing.

Chain of Custody

20

_______ are federal regulatory standards that apply to all clinical laboratory testing performed on humans in the US (with the exception of clinical trials and basic research). A clinical laboratory is defined by ____ as any facility which performs laboratory testing on specimens obtained from humans for the purpose of providing information for health assessments and for the diagnosis, prevention, or treatment of disease.

Each facility is given a unique number. All medicare claims for laboratory services must include the ____ number for the laboratory.

CLIA
Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments

21

Tests can be _____ under _____ if they are determined to be "simple tests with an insignificant risk of an erroneous result".

waived, CLIA

22

A volunteer-driven, membership-supported, not-for-profit, standards development organization. ___ promotes the development and use of voluntary laboratory consensus standards and guidelines within the health care community.

CLSI - clinical and laboratory standards institute

23

The number of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets (per cubic millimeter) that are present in a patient's sample of blood is determined. Also included is the hematocrit (%), hemoglobin concentration (gm%), and the differential. The most common test done on the blood.

Complete Blood Count - CBC

24

The blood test has no fasting requirements but is preferably collected at the time the urine collection is completed. The ____ 24-hour urine test requires a patient void urine at 8am and discard the specimen. then collect all urine in the 24-hour period, ending with the final collection at 8am the next morning. Specimens must be handled and stored (refrigerated) correctly.

It is important to stay hydrated during the period of specimen collection. Exercise should be avoided prior to and during the period of specimen collection.

Creatinine clearance

25

a blood test marker for inflammation in the body. ___ is produced in the liver and its level is measured by testing the blood. ___ is classified as an acute-phase reactant, which means that its levels will rise in response to inflammation. this test can be drawn in a serum separator tube or lavender top tube depending on if serum or plasma is required for the test.

C-reactive protein (CRP)

26

bluish skin color due to lack of oxygen

Cyanotic

27

A medical term used to describe excessive, abnormal sweating in relation to your environment and activity level.

diaphoresis

28

The measuring of a body's ability to metabolize certain substances, monitoring changes in the patients condition within a 24-hour period.

diurnal variations

29

This test is drawn in a light blue - sodium citrate tube. This test is used to help rule out the presence of an inappropriate blood clot (thrombus). Some of the conditions that the ___ test is used to help rule out include: deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE).

d-dimer

30

A calcium-binding agent that is used as an anticoagulant for laboratory blood specimens.

EDTA - ethylenediaminetetraacetate or potassium oxalate

31

another name for alcohol in blood testing

Ethanol

32

What is ETOH?

Ethanol

33

A unit that attaches to a water supply and provide a gentle stream of water; used for emergency irrigation to remove contaminants from the ocular area. ____ are a necessary back up to minimize the effects of accident exposure to chemical and other irritants.

Eyewash station

34

The protein formed during normal blood clotting that is the essence of the clot.

fibrin

35

The protein from which fibrin is formed/generated in normal blood clotting

fibrinogen

36

Relative to venipuncture, the appearance of a small amount of blood in the neck of a syringe or the tubing of a butterfly. This is a sign that the vein has been properly accessed.

Flash

37

an inanimate object that transports microorganisms

fomite

38

what are the formed elements? (3)

red blood cells, white blood cells, and platletes

39

a rare genetic metabolic disorder that affects an individual's ability to metabolize the sugar galactose properly.

this is an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance.
Frequency is about 1 in every 60,000 births.

galactosemia

40

Needle diameter is measured by ____

gauge

41

the branch of medicine dealing with the diseases, debilities and care of aged persons

geriatrics

42

This law deals with the rendering of first aid by health care professionals at the scene of an accident or sudden injury. It encourages health care professionals to provide medical care within the scope of their training without fear of being sued for negligence.

Good Samaritan Law

43

The sugar measured in blood and urine specimens to determine the presence or absence of diabetes. ____ is the end product of carbohydrate metabolism and is the chief source of energy for all living organisms. Patients with diabetes use a ____ meter to measure their blood sugar anywhere from 1-5 times daily.

glucose

44

A device that individuals with diabetes use to measure the amount of sugar in their bloodstream. A phlebotomy technician should perform a quality control test on a ___ every day the ___ is used to guarantee that readings are accurate and consistent.

Glucose Meter or Glucometer

45

This is a breath test, carbon isotope-urea breath test or urea breath test

Helicobacter pylori - H Pylori

46

Up to 2 weeks before this test you need to stop taking antibiotics, bismuth medicines such as peptobismol and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs)

Helicobacter pylori - H Pylori

47

during this test you swallow a special substance that has urea.

Helicobacter pylori - H Pylori

48

____ is a waste product the body produces as it breaks down protein.

Urea

49

True or false: it is okay for the patient to eat and drink between baseline H Pylori breath test and the final breath test

FALSE

50

the ratio of the total red blood cell volume to the total blood volume and expressed as a percentage

hematocrit

51

a localized collection of blood within tissues due to leakage from the wall of a blood vessel producing a bluish discoloration (ecchymosis) and pain.

hematoma

52

blood in the urine

Hematuria

53

A device used for POCT regarding PT/INR would be the _____. It is a comprehensive point-of-care coagulation monitoring system.

hemochron/ hemochron signature elite

54

Increased concentration of cells and solids in the blood usually resulting from loss of fluid to the tissues. This condition is caused by the filtration of plasma into body tissues and often created by dehydration.

hemoconcentration

55

The oxygen carrying pigment of the red blood cells.

hemoglobin

56

The breaking of red blood cell membrane releasing free hemoglobin into the circulating blood.

In phlebotomy this is usually the result of using a smaller needle than should have been used, too great of suction from a large tube or the needle up against the vein wall causing the cells to have a smaller than normal entry point into the needle thereby breaking as they all force into the needle.

hemolyze/hemolysis

57

The arrest of bleeding, whether it be by normal vasoconstriction (the vessel walls closing temporarily) by an abnormal obstruction (such as plaque) or by coagulation or surgical means (such as ligation).

hemostasis

58

This test indicates the average level of blood sugar over a 2-3 month window. It is customarily drawn in a Lavender tube.

HbA1c (listed as HgA1c in the book but that is wrong)

59

It is important in regards to ____ policy to get all consent/acknowledgment in writing. In accordance with ___ the patient has a right to their information remaining private and protected.

HIPPA

60

What does HIPAA stand for?

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996

61

What is the priory goal of HIPPA?

to make it easier for people to keep health insurance, protect the confidentiality and security of healthcare information and help the healthcare industry control administrative costs.

62

abnormally high blood sugar

hyperglycemia

63

abnormally low blood sugar

hypoglycemia

64

Resulting from the activity of a health care provider or institution; said of any adverse condition in a patient resulting from treatment by a physician, nurse, or allied health professional.

iatrogenic

65

A type of anemia resulting from repeated blood collection for diagnostic testing.

iatrogenic anemia

66

What is the key to preventing iatrogenic anemia?

blood conservation, by avoiding taking blood samples unless absolutely necessary, collecting minimum volume, reducing frequency of blood sampling and using small blood volume containers.

67

removal of more than ____% of blood in iatrogenic anemics patients blood can be life threatening.

10%

68

An infection transmitted through body fluids to blood

Indirect Infection

69

giving the patient adequate information concerning the method, risk, and consequences for a specific procedure including, its risks, expected outcomes and alternatives.

informed consent

70

This is the release of medical records without the patient's knowledge and permission.

invasion of privacy

71

in words that someone who is not an expert can understand

layperson's terms

72

After blood is spun and separated in a centrifuge the serum/plasma portion is milky in appearance. Hyperlipidemia would cause the blood to be ___. Samples are most likely to be ____ if the patient was not fasting prior to collection.

lipemic

73

___ is used to order tests, print labels for specimens and enter test results. ___ can be customized to specific laboratory requirements.

LIS, Laboratory information system

74

What does MSDS stand for?

Material Safety Data Sheet

75

a document that contains information on the potential health effects of exposure to chemicals or other potentially dangerous substances, and gives an explanation on safe working procedures when handling chemical products.

It contains hazard evaluation on the use, storage, handling, and emergency procedures related to that material. It is intended to tell what the hazards of the products are, how to use the product safely, what to expect if the recommendations are not followed, what to do if accidents occur, how to recognize symptoms of overexposure and what to do is such incidents occur.

MSDS: Material Safety Data Sheet

76

a ____ is a respiratory protective device designed to achieve a very close facial fit and very efficient filtration of airborne particles. The ____ designation means that when subjected to careful testing, the respirator blocks at least 95% of very small (0.3 microns) test particles. The technician is required by the CDC to wear an ___ when working with patients who have active tuberculosis.

N95 respirator mask

77

What does NCCLS stand for?

National Center for Clinical Laboratory Standards

78

This agency is a national organization that establishes standards for phlebotomy procedures

National Center for Clinical Laboratory Standards - NCCLS

now called The Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI)

79

This is the failure to exercise the standard of care that a reasonable person would give under similar circumstances and someone suffers injury because of another's failure to live up to a required duty of care.

Negligence

80

What are the four elements of negligence (4Ds)

1. Duty:duty of care
2. Derelict: breach of duty of care
3. Direct cause: legally recognizable injury occurs as a result of breach of duty care
4. Damage: the wrongful activity must have caused the injury or harm that occurred

81

Of, relating to or affecting the newborn and especially the human infant during the first month after birth

neonatal/neonate

82

healthcare setting acquired infections

nosocomial infection

83

Patients are not allowed food or drink, including water. This restriction is usually placed on a patient before and after a procedure.

NPO

non per os or nil per os, nothing by mouth

84

The study and treatment of cancer

oncology

85

This test is used to detect the presence of parasites in a stool sample and help diagnose infection in the digestive tract

ova and parasite

86

what does OSHA stand for?

Occupational Safety and Health Administration

87

an agency of the US government under the department of labor with the responsibility of ensuring safety at work and a healthful work environment.

OSHA

88

_____ mission is to prevent work-related injuries, illnesses, and deaths.

OSHA

89

to examine or feel using the fingers of the non-dominant hand. In relation to venipuncture, this technique is used to "feel" veins.

The technique is used to determine the size, depth and direction of a vein.

palpate

90

This is the key concept of HIPAA. All patients have a right to privacy and all information should remain privileged.

Discuss patient information only with a patient's physician or office personnel that need certain information to do their job. Obtain a singed consent form to release medical information to the insurance company or other individuals.

patient confidentiality

91

these are tiny non-raised red spots that appear on the skin from the rupturing of capillaries due to the tourniquets being left on too long or too tight

Petechiae

92

Inflammation of a vein as a result of repeated venipuncture on that vein.

phlebitis

93

The fluid portion of the blood in which the cellular components are suspended. Contains clotting factors.

Plasma

94

True or false: plasma and serum are the same

FALSE

95

AKA thrombocyte, this is a particulate component of the blood, approximately 2-4 microns in diameter is known for its involvement in blood coagulation. This structure which has no nucleus or DNA is formed by breaking off from the cytoplasm of the parent cell, known as megakaryocyte in bone marrow.

Under normal conditions ____ will aggregate at the site of a break-in vascular integrity forming the beginning stages of a clot. Normal ____ counts range from 150,000-450-000/cm3

platelets

96

Defined as diagnostic testing at or near the site of patient care. The driving notion behind ____ is to bring the test conveniently and immediately to the patient. This increases the likelihood that the patient will receive the results in a timely manner.

point of care testing (POCT)

97

A program that guarantees quality patient care by tracking the outcomes through scheduled audits in which areas of the hospital look at the appropriateness, applicability, and timeliness of patient care.

A ____ program is a continuous program established by the healthcare facility, which will provide guidelines protocols, and continuing education for their employees to show ongoing competence. Quality control are the steps or procedure we do to ensure___.

Quality Assurance (QA)

98

Checking expiration dates, monitoring glucose monitors, keeping log sheets of refrigerator temperatures, calibrating instruments etc are examples of ______.

Quality Assurance (QA)

99

____ testing procedures provides assurance that the test performs as expected and alerts the user when problems occur. ___ testing is designed to detect problems that might arise because of operator error, reagent or test kit deterioration, instrument malfunction or improper environmental conditions.

Quality control testing

100

what does QNS stand for?

Quantity not sufficient

101

When drawing blood, you do not get enough blood for the lab to perform the test or tests indicated on the requisition.

Quantity not sufficient

102

One of the solid components of the blood, which is normally a biconcave disc without a nucleus. This is the component of the blood that contains hemoglobin, which is responsible for oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange.

A ____ is performed as part of a complete blood count and ranges from 4,500,000 - 5,000,000 __ per cubic millimeter.

Red Blood Cells (RBCs)

103

A hardening, especially from inflammation and certain disease states. Though ___ may occur in may areas of the body, the term is most often associated with blood vessels.

Sclerosis

104

This is a systemic infection associated with the presence of pathogenic organisms introduced during a venipuncture.

septicemia

105

Referring to blood, the clear liquid portion of blood that separates out after clotting has taken place. After clotting has occurred ___ is fibrinogen deficient, contrast to plasma.

serum

106

Means immediately. It describes the need for a specimen or test to be done immediately in response to critical situations with the possibility of the test results preventing a patient's death.

STAT

107

This is a blood clot usually formed as a consequence of insufficient pressure applied after the withdrawal of a needle

thrombus

108

a constrictive band placed over an extremity to distend veins for the purpose of blood aspiration or intravenous injections.

tourniquet

109

A substance sometimes found in the blood, other body fluids, or tissues. Examples include CA 125, CA 15-3, CEA, and PSA.

Sometimes called biomarkers.

tumor markers

110

The name used to describe a prevention strategy in which all blood and potentially infectious materials are treated as if they are infectious regardless of the perceived status of the source individual. In other words, whether or not you think the blood/body fluid is infected with blood-borne pathogens, you treat it as if it is. This approach is used in all situation where exposure to blood or potentially infectious materials is possible. This also means that certain engineering and work practice controls shall always be utilized in situation where exposure may occur.

universal precautions

111

A federally and internationally registered trademark owned by BD that is used in connection with a complete system of tubes, needles and needle holders, sharps collectors and safety devices in blood collection.

vacutainer

112

This is the case when a person is read a verbal version of a consent form and then they give their ____ consent in place of written consent to participate.

verbal consent

113

The number of leukocytes found in the peripheral blood and measured per cubic millimeter.

white cell count

114

This type of blood has had none of the elements removed. It is collected from a donor for the purpose of blood replenishment for a recipient.

whole blood

115

supine

laying on back

116

donning

putting on PPE

117

doffing

taking off PPE