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LSCI 211 > Glucose > Flashcards

Flashcards in Glucose Deck (70)
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1

Smallest carbohydrate?

Glyceraldehyde

2

Largest carbohydrate?

Amylopectin

3

Functions of carbohydrates? {ESI}

-Energy Source/Storage

-Structural Component of Cell walls + Exoskeletons 

-Information Signalling -> Sugar Code

4

Two types of signalling types? [sugar code/NO]

  1. N-LINK
  2. O-LINK

 

Protect proteins from proteases on surface of cell membrane! Covalently linked -> glycoproteins, glycolipids, protoglycines 

 

5

Carbohydrates are _____ and have 2 categories:

Polyhydroxyl

  1. Aldose {Aldehyde}
  2. Ketose {Ketones}

6

Examples of Monosaccharides

  1. Glucose
  2. Galactose
  3. Fructose

7

Examples of dissacharides

  1. Maltose
  2. Lactose
  3. Sucrose

8

Components of Maltose

Glucose + Glucose 

9

Components of Sucrose

Glucose + Fructose

10

Components of Lactose

Glucose + Galactose

11

Olgiosaccharides

  • 3-10 Monosccahrides -> Linked to lipids/proteins

12

Polysaccharides

  • >10 monosaccharides 
  • 1000 monosaccharides = Cellulose + Amylose (Unbranched)
  • Branched = Amylopectin!

13

Most sugars are defined in _ conformation?

D

14

What is significance of D/L configuration?

 

Determines rotation {L/R} in plane polarized light.

15

Fischer projection .. D conformation is when OH group is found ..

on the RIGHT

16

Fischer configuration ... L when OH group is on the?

LEFT

17

A molecule has 3 chiral centres, how many stereoisomers?

2^3, therefore 8 stereoisomers. 

18

A ketone sugar has the empirical formula of (CH20)6 .. what is the name?

Ketohexose 

19

An aldose sugar with the empirical formula (CH20)3 , what is the name?

Aldoltriose 

20

Draw Glylceraldelhyde

21

What is an epimer?

2 sugars that differ in the configuration of one carbon only.

22

D-Mannose is a ___

C2 epimer of glucose 

23

D-Allose is a 

C-3 Epimer of glucose 

24

D-Galactose is a 

C4 Epimer of glucose 

25

Draw the main structures of D-Aldotriose (1) and D-Aldoterioise (2)

D-Glyceraldehyde 

D-Erythose

D-Threose 

26

Name the 4 Aldopentoses 

D-Ribose

D-Arabinose

D-Xylose

D-Lyxose 

27

Name the 3 most important aldohexoses

D-Glucose

D-Mannose

D-Galactose 

28

Alcohol attacking an aldehyde in solutuion creates ...

Hemiacetal

 

29

Alcohol attacking a ketone in solution creates ..

Hemiketal

30

Draw the alpha-D-Glucose, what percent is often found in solution?

32%