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Organisational culture

A system of shared beliefs and values held by workers that form a dominant culture that is unique to the organisation.


Organisational culture, Core believes

Shared values

Shared beliefs


Individual and group behaviour

Reinforcing outcomes


Types of organisational cultures

Power culture

People culture

Task culture

Role culture



Theoretical perspectives of motivation

The instrumental approach: The employee is rational and that motivation in purely economic.

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: Based on the motivational concept of ‘drive’.

Theory X/Theory Y

Theory X: The average human dislike work and will avoid it if possible. People must be coerced, controlled, threatened, and directed.

Theory Y: Managers believe that freedom and free creativity motivates people.

Hertzberg- Hygiene factors and motivations: Two measurements: Satisfaction and dissatisfaction


Ethical frameworks

Moral principles: This approach is adopted when confronted with an ethical dilemma. Decisions are made on the basis of a recognised moral code.

Utilitarianism: Maxing favourable outcome for the greatest number of people.

Human rights: Beliefs and consensus on how actions affect the human rights.

Individualism: Taken by individuals who view and evaluate the environment in terms of the effect it has on them as individuals.


Institutional theory

A theory on the deeper and moire resilient aspects of social structure



Coercive isomorphism: Companies become more similar to each others because they adopt values from each other.

Mimetic isomorphism: Imitating other companies.

Normative isomorphism: Not buy purpose—> indirectly—> through employees and managers changing company or have the same education.


The development of groups



Decision making
Garbage can model

cause and effect is ambiguous and the key players do not know their preferred outcome. The decision is separate from the decision making process. Flexible, unstructured, creativity, and innovation.


Key streams that coalesce to inform decision making

Choice opportunities: pre-set times when decisions have to be made.

Participants: the people who have the influence to present opportunities

Problems: problems that concern people

Solutions: problems that require solutions


Types of control systems

Bureaucratic control: Implementation of rules, regulations, and procedures underpinned by formal authority.

Market control: Emphasis on economic criteria as a means of control.

Clan control: Refers to functions or activities within an organisation that are the locus of the workers’ shared beliefs, values, goals and/or expectations.


Competing values framework

Rational goal models of management

Open systems model

Human relations model

Internal process model