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Flashcards in Change Deck (9)
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Kurt Lewin- Forces for change

Unfreezing: Finding ways of making the need for change so clear that most people will understand and support it. Can be achieved by creating a culture of continuous change

Changing behaviour: Bring to bear new attitudes, values, and behaviour that become the dominant culture within an organisation

Refreezing: Introduce supporting mechanisms that consolidate and maintain the new behaviour patterns.


Scale of change

Paradigm shift

A radical rethinking of the nature of the business and the nature of the organisation. Usually occurs when the organisation finds it difficult to compete effectively within the industry sector.


Scale of change

Business process re-engineering (BPR):

Radical reorganisation of internal business processes.


Scale of change

Business process improvement (BPI)

Incremental (step by step) change to processes using information technology.


Scale of change


Automation on processes


Influences on responses to change

Personality: Some people are sensitive to any form of change and will react accordingly, either negative or positive reaction.

Values and beliefs: Individuals, organisations, and groups build up their own value systems, code of conduct, or behaviour. Change that runs counter to these is likely to be met with strong resistance.

Past experience: Individuals often evaluate changes that affect them by looking for similar occurrences in the past and reacting in similar ways


Active resistance

go-slows, strikes, sabotage, sit-ins etc.


Passive resistance

People will not learn about new ideas or avoid being faced with something different.


Tactics for overcoming resistance

Education and communication


Facilitation and support


Manipulation and co-optation