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A Level Psychology 2016/2017 > Gould - Individual Differences > Flashcards

Flashcards in Gould - Individual Differences Deck (9):
1

Whose work was Gould describing

Yerkes.

2

What were the aims of Gould's study

Gould aimed to identify the following issues in society:
•The problematic nature of psychometric testing and the measurement of intelligence in particular
•The problem of theoretical bias influencing research in psychology
•The problem of the political and ethical implications of research

3

What was Yerkes' aim?

To prove that psychology could be classes as rigorous a science as physics.

4

Sample

1.75 million army recruits in the USA during WW1 including white Americans, African Americans and European immigrants.

5

What were the names of the three tests developed?

The Army Alpha Test

The Army Beta Test

The Individual Examination

6

Outline the procedure for The Army Alpha Test (first one)

Given to literate recruits. It included 8 parts and took under an hour. Most of the items in the test used familiar tasks such as filling in the next number in the sequence. It required a good basic understanding of English language skills and literacy.
It was extremely culturally biased as someone unfamiliar with American culture would have been unable to achieve a good score.

7

Outline the procedure for The Army Beta Test (second one)

This one was designed for those who were illiterate or had failed the Army Alpha Test. It had 7 parts and consisted of picture completion tasks. The pictures were culturally specific. There were also maze and counting tests.

Instructions were written in English and some answers had to be given in writing even though this test was designed for the illiterate.

8

Outline the procedure of The Individual Examination

If recruits failed the other two tests then they were supposed to be given an individual examination, however this rarely happened (only one fifth of the time).

Every individual was given a grade from A-E with plus and minus signs (C- indicated below average).

9

Results

•The average mental age of white American adult males stood just above the edge of moronity at 13 (with the standard previously being set at 16)
•European immigrants: The darker people from Southern Europe and the Slavs of Eastern Europe were founded to be less intelligent than the fair people of Western and Northern Europe.
•Black Americans lay at the bottom of the scale with an average mental age of 10.41, however, the lighter their skin colour, the higher the score?