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A Level Psychology 2016/2017 > Intelligence > Flashcards

Flashcards in Intelligence Deck (11):

What is Oxford Dictionary of Psychology's definition of intelligence?

Cognitive ability.


What does the term "individual differences tend to cluster in families" mean?

Relative are likely to be good or bad at the same things.


Identify factors that may be accountable for the resemblance in intelligence between relatives.

•Shared genetics
•Shared environment
•Cultural transmission


Explain the hypothesis of marital interaction or convergence.

This hypothesis states that spousal correlations in terms of intelligence levels arise because spouses spend time together. They tend to become more similar the longer they spend together. However, this theory has been discounted due to no indications being found.


What is phenotypic assortment?

It assumes that spouses choose each other based on observable characteristics. In this case based on intelligence or a trait relating to it. Eg: individuals will tend to mate with partners of a similar intelligence level.


What is social homogamy?

Social homogamy refers to assortment based solely on environmental similarities. The hypothesis states that people with the same intelligence levels live within the same social environment. Therefore, partners do not choose each other on the basis of intelligence, they just happen to live in the same environment as people with a similar IQ to them.


How much DNA to monozygotic twins share?



How much DNA do dizygotic twins share?



What might the relationship between cultural transmission and genetic transmission be?

Parents create a particular type of environment that correlates with their genotype/phenotype eg: bright parents may stimulate their children with school work. Whenever there is cultural transmission, environmental influences become correlated with genetic influences so it is almost impossible to tell which has had the most impact.


Explain a dilemma when looking into the resemblance between MZ twins.

MZ twins share a lot of the same environment AND genes so it is very difficult to see which has the most impact.


Biological factors that could affect intelligence

•Brain size - Broca & Galton formed the conclusion that a larger head size resulted in higher intelligence indicated males are smarter than females.
•Pre-natal experience - Susan King found mother's who experienced stress during their pregnancy produced less intelligent children.
•Genes - Van Leeuwen found the contribution of genes to intelligence to be around 25-50%.