GOV: ch 10,12 Elections And The Media Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in GOV: ch 10,12 Elections And The Media Flashcards Deck (39):

Single member districts

The system most commonly used for legislative elections in the US
-all candidates appear on the ballot and the voters indicate their choice of one of them, all of the votes are then counted and the winner is the one with the most votes, winners need not a majority, only more than their opponents


Blanket primary

A system used for selecting political party candidates in a primary election
Voters may pick one candidate for each office without regard to part lines


Coattail effect

When a person running tends to win because of a high person incumbent that holds their same party



Process of drawing electoral district boundaries


Direct election

System of choosing political office holders in which the voters directly cast ballots for the person, persons, or political party that they desire to see elected


Direct primary

An election that narrows the field of candidates before an election for office
-means by which a political party or a political alliance nominates candidates for an upcoming general election or by election



To manipulate the boundaries of an electoral constituency so as to favor one party or class


Front loading

The recent tendency of states to hold primaries early in the calendar in order to capitalize on media attention


Soft money

Political contributions earmarked for party building expenses at the grassroots level or for generic party advertising


Open primary

A primary election in which any registered voter can vote in any party's primary


Issue ads

Communications intended to bring a problem to light



The number of votes cast for a candidate who receives more than any other but does not receive an absolute majority


Closed primary

Is a type of primary election used to choose candidates who will run in the general election


Safe seat

A seat in a legislative body which is regarded as fully secured either by a political party, or the incumbent


Incumbency advantage

Being an incumbent brings advantages in you already have campaign money, supporters, favors, etc see ch 10/12 cards for full definition



A meeting of supporters or members of a specific political party or movement


Super delegate

Is a delegate to the democratic national convention or republican NC that is seated automatically based on their states as a current party par taker or former party leader or elected official


Super Tuesday

The Tuesday in February or March of a presidential election year when the greatest number of states hold primary elections to select delegates to national conventions at which each party's presidential candidates are officially nominated


General election

An election in which all or most members of a given political body are chosen usually refers to elections held for a nations primary legislative body


Swing state

a state in which no single candidate or party has overwhelming support in securing that states electoral college votes


Fairness doctrine

Required holders of broadcast licenses to both present controversial issues or public importance in a manner that is honest, equitable, and balanced


Midterm election

A type of election where the people can elect their representatives in the middle of the term of the executive or of another set of members


Horse race journalism

Political journalism of elections that resembles coverage of horse races because of the focus on polling data, public perception instead of candidate policy, and almost exclusive reporting on candidate differences rather than similarities


Nonpartisan elections

Doesn't permit party labels to appear on the ballot


Indpendent expenditures

A political campaign communication that expressly advocates the election or defeat of a clearly identifies candidate that is not made in cooperation, consultation or concert with or at the request or suggestion of a candidate, candidates authorized committee, or a politcal party


Photo opportunity

A situation in which a politician can be photographed while doing something good or impressive that is meant to be seen in a favorable way by the public


Selective exposure

The process by which individuals screen out messages that do not conform to their own biases


Selective perception

The process by which individuals perceive what they want to in media messages


Sound bite

A short clip of speech extracted from a larger piece of audio often used to promote or exemplify the full length piece


Spin control

The activity of trying to control the way something is described to the public in order to influence what people think about it


12th amendment

-provides the election of the president and Vice President by the electoral college, there is no majority vote for one person,the house of rep (1 vote per state) chooses the president and the senate chooses the Vice President


17th amendment

Established direct election of the us senators by popular vote


Citizens united vs FECA

-deals with regulation of campaign spending by organizations
-the court held that the first amendment prohibited the government from restricting independent political expenditures by a nonprofit corporation
-the conservative lobbying group wanted to air a film critical of Hilary Clinton and to advertise the film during Tv broadcasts within 60 days of the election


Buckley vs valeo

1st amendment protects campaign spending, legislatures can limit contributions but not how much one spends oh his own money on campaigns


McConnell vs FEC

Supreme Court case upheld constitutionality of most BCRA but said money is property not speech and not all speech is protected by the first amendment from government infringement


FEC vs Wisconsin right to life

Court held that issue ads may not be banned from the months preceding a primary or general election


Near v Minnesota

Recognized freedom of the press by rejecting prior restraints on publication


New York Times vs Sullivan

Established the actual malice standard, which has to be met before press reports about public officials can be considered to be defamation or libel and hence allowed free reporting of the civil right campaigns


Miami herald vs tornillo

Overturned a Florida state law requiring newspapers to allow equal space in their newspapers to political candidates in the case of a political editorial or endorsement content