GOV: Ch 10 elections and campaigns Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in GOV: Ch 10 elections and campaigns Deck (18):

Changes in campaigns over time

-now there is a larger staff because of change and increase in technology ie more social media, raise money for ads
-now they are more expensive ie because of media
-now there is more media advertising ie because of internet, candidates have changed their strategy


Effects of changes in campaigns

-polling now better identifies voter opinion because of internet surveys and collecting data
-candidates can now target specific voters
-instead of funding candidates, Parties emphasize getting the vote activities
-candidates now heavily rely on the advice of consultants
-campaigning now really means fundraising


Presidential vs congressional campaigns

-More voters...lower vote turnout
-Candidates work harder and spend more money...appeal to more motivated and partisan voters
-more competitive...can do things for constituents
-can't distance himself from "the mess in Washington" as individuals and don't take blame for party
-funding is private and public...funding is private


Congressional elections

Incumbent advantage, 90% are re elected because of name recognition, they provide service to constituents, they have office resources like free mailing, they already have a good support base for campaign funding


Problems of congressional elections

Mostly in the House of Representatives
-malapportionment: to fix, redraw distinct boundaries to make sure equal people in each district
-gerrymandering: THEN, originated in south in reconstruction to make enough white people in the district toe nature white elected into office, not black NOW: drawn to make majority republican and democratic representative, redrawn by independent person every 10 years after census


Sources of funding

-public and private:
-small contributors with occasional small sums,
-wealthy individuals and families,
-candidates: creates elites mostly running in politics,
-PACs: groups who donate money on behalf of other groups who may not have money themselves (if you want yo donate over maximum allowed, you donate to a candidates PAC and money is funneled, this is a loophole),
-temporary organizations: designed to raise money through fundraising,
-subsidies: a grant of money usually from the government


Why people give

-They believe in the party or candidate
-they want to access the gov and get favors from elected
-social recognition
-policy aims: think person will fulfill their objectives


Regulations on campaigns

-1907: first law, unlawful for any corporation or national bank to make a money contribution in any election to candidates in a federal election
-congress passed the federal election campaign act FECA in 1971 and amended in 1974 and 76
-congress doesn't have power to regulate the use of money in state and local elections


Federal election commission FEC, established by FECA

-came out during watergate scandal
-set up by congress in 74 to administer all federal laws dealing with campaign finances are being abided by
-composed of 6 members, independent agency, appointed by the president, confirmed by senate
-enforces: requires the timely disclosure of campaign finance data, places limits on campaign contributions of who and how much, like its on what they can spend money on, provides public funding aka subsidies and watches how they money is spent


Loopholes in the law

-soft money: money given to a state and local party organization for "party building activities" which funnels the money to the candidate, there is no limit and no need to report
-independent campaign spending: someone buys items for the candidate or party without donating money, ie campaign HQ or a sign making buss.
-issue ads: deals with controversial issues without mentioning the candidates name or the person they are attacking


Bipartisan campaign reform act aka McCain feingold act 2002

-addressed loopholes
-on soft money: bans use of in individual election campaigns, limits money and individual can contribute to a party, parties can only use money to encourage voter registration and turnout
-on issue ads: they are banned 60 days before the election
-BUT: this does not apply to tax exempt organizations like Red Cross, churches, or 527 organizations


Effects of elections on policy

-argument: public policy will remain more or less the same no matter who's in office
-depends on office and policy
-voters must elect numbers office holders
-parties have limited ability to build coalitions of office holders
-winning coalitions. Ah change from policy to policy
-ANSWER: change of pace is intended to be moderate, we have things in place to make policy not change rapidly


Hired people for campaigns today

Media consultants: create ads and buy airtime from stations and networks
Direct mail firms: design and produce mailings to promote or solicit money
Pooling firms: survey voters on their attitudes toward issues and candidates
Political technology firms: supply services like website design, online ads, online fundraising, voter targeting



The tendency of candidates to win more votes to an election because of the presence at the top of the ticket of a better known candidate, such as the president


2 Campaign issues

Position issue: issue about which the public is divided and rival candidates or political parties adopt different policy positions
Valence issue: an issue about which the public is united and rival candidates or political parties adopt similar positions I hopes that each will be thought to best represent those widely shared beliefs


Types of elections

-general election: held to choose which candidate will hold office.
-primary: held to choose candidates for office
-closed primary: a primary in which voting is limited to already registered party members
-open primary: a primary In which votes may choose in which party to vote as they enter the polling place
-blanket primary: a primary in which each voter may vote for candidates from both parties
-runoff primary: a second primary election held when no candidate wins a majority of the votes in the first primary


Things that don't effect who is elected in presidential elections

The vice presidential nominee
Political reporting


Types of voting

Prospective voting: voting for a candidate because you favor his or her ideas for handling issues
Retrospective voting: voting for a candidate because you like his or her actions in the past