GOV: Ch 9, 11 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in GOV: Ch 9, 11 Deck (37):

interest group

an organization of people that share a common goal/interest that seeks to influence public policy
-often achieved through lobbyists



there is an increase in the number of interest groups because of it
-more cleavages: more groups with opinions
-interest groups are able to gain access in government because we have a divided system, which is easier to influence
-we have weak political parties that are not specific enough and are hard to make change through
-we have broad economic developments
-government policies have gotten larger
-we have strong leaders that develop from social movements


public interest groups

-a group that seeks to inspire public policy that will benefit many/all people no matter if they are in/out of the organization
-ie league of women voters


role of interest groups

-to stimulate interest in public affairs
-represent members' common interests
-provide government with useful information, they rely on the research and arguments
-means for political participation
-check and balance gov, people challenge their decisions


kinds of interest groups

-institutional: individuals or organizations representing other organizations
-membership interests: anyone can join


incentives to join an interest group

-solidarity: join to feel companionship with people ie AA
-material: money/value/discounts ie AARP
-purposive: for the mission, strongly believe in cause, and will work hard to achieve goal
-ideological interest groups: attract members by appealing to their interest in a coherent set of controversial principles


funds for interest groups

-foundation grants: work with a similar foundation and ask for money
-fed grants and contracts: give money or hire them to do research
-direct mail: mail and ask for donations
-membership fees: may/may not ask for


activities of interest groups

-information to provide: through political cues/flyers, ratings of current members of congress based on what they vote for
-lobbying: going to congress and discussing to get/adopt a bill, earmark: saying they will give money to a certain group and attach it to the bill to get it passed
-grassroots mobilization: coming from the people, civil disobedience ie marches
-litigation: filing lawsuits to change laws once they are passed
-money and political action committees: raise money for candidates running
-revolving door: once gov official leaves office, they are promised a job to an interest group and would be more likely to pass laws for that group



groups pressure legislators and the legislative process
-extends beyond legislative branch into agencies in the executive branch and courts
-work in each of the state capitals


lobbyists at work

-provide officeholders with reports, articles, and other info supporting their cause
-testify before legis committees
-use "grass roots" pressure-means of or from the people and voters
-publish rating of members of congress by votes on cast members
-contribute to campaigns
-write speeches
-draft legislation and try to get member of congres to adopt/introduce it


lobby regulation

-false/misleading testimony, bribery, and unethical pressures do occur
-fed regulation of lobbying act of 1946: required lobbyists to register w clerk of the house and the secretary of senate
-lobbying disclose act of 1995: broader definition of lobbying and tightened reporting requirements
-2007 reforms: no gifts, no reimbursement for travel, removed tax exempt status for some profits, and limit PAC conditions
-indiv states also have their own laws


criticism of lobbyists

-some groups have too much influence
-hard to tell who or how many people a group represent
-dont always represent the view of all members
-some use dishonest tactics


political parties

-decentralization: not as important to us as other nations
-labels in the minds of voters: more independents, more split ticket voting
-organization: recruiting and campaigning weaker
-set of leaders to control legislature and executive is still somewhat strong
-decentralized political power making state and parties more decentralized
-regulated by laws
-candidates chosen through primaries
-pres elected separately from congress


party realignments

-major party disappears and new ones emerge
-voters shift their loyalty
-5 total in history: 1800: jefferson rep defeats feds, 1828: jacksonian dems, 1860: whigs collapse, reps emerge (slavery), 1896: reps defeat william jennings bryan, 1932: dems under FDR (great depression)


national conventions

-reps and dems come together
-usually ratify choices made in primaries
-dems rules: super delegates: member of congress gets to choose which candidate they like best, bans winner reward system, proportional representation, penalizes states who break rules with loss of delegates


two party system

-why?: electoral college, winner takes all
-opinions of voters
-state laws make it difficult for 3rd parties to get on ballots


minor parties

-single issue: ex prolife party
-ideological: want to change everything, ex communist
-economic protest: ex populist party
-splinter/factional: branches of major groups ex tea party from rep
-develop ideas that major parties adopt
-influence public policy


there are thousands of interest groups because...

many believe they have rights to have access to leaders


the most powerful interest groups tend to be

representatives of issues, groups, or causes


madison and early founders feared factions would

take control of regions and block minority groups


the 2 party dominance in the US is explained by

parties are able to absorb new political goals


the future balance of the dem rep support will probably hinge on

the possible switch of hispanic voters due to social issues


progressives demands for major changes in workers rights affected



political machine

a party organization that recruits its members by dispensing patronage: money, jobs, favors


ideological parties

a party that values principled stands on issues above all else


solidary groups

the social rewards: sense of pleasure, status, companionship that lead people to join


sponsored parties

a local or state party largely supported by another organization


personal following

the political support provided to a candidate on the basis of personal popularity and networks


political action committee

a committee set up by a corporation, labor union, or interest group that raises and spends campaign money from voluntary donations



a person who tries to influence legislation on behalf of an interest group


public interest lobby

a political organization whose goals will principally benefit nonmembers


social movement

widely shared demand for change in some aspect of the social or political order
it does not need to have liberal goals
can be triggered by a scandal
effect: new interest groups


political cue

a signal telling a political official what values are at stake in an issue


most interest groups hire whom



the political power of an interest group lies in

bringing money to campaigns, lobbying leaders and persuading them, gathering many members to contact the leaders, picking key issues to protect or change


have broad party changes often occurred in the us?



what were the partys associated with hamilton and jefferson

hamilton: democrat
jefferson: republican