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Flashcards in Grafting Types Deck (23):

Apical grafting

A meristem at the tip of a plant shoot or root that causes the shoot or root to increase in length
Splice graft
Whip-and-tongue graft
Cleft graft (split graft)
Saw-kerf graft
Inlay graft
Saddle graft
Wedge graft Four-flap graft (banana graft)
Hole Insertion Graft for vegetables


Approach grafting (novelty plants -basket weaving, braiding)

The distinguishing feature of approach grafting is that two independent, self-sustaining plants are grafted together.
Before cuttings became a major method for clonal propagation in the mid-1900’s, approach grafting was a common propagation method.

Approach grafting provides a means of establishing a graft union between certain plants in which successful graft unions are difficult to obtain.
Usually it is performed with one or both of the plants growing in a container.


Bark grafting

Bark (rind) grafts are most often used to top work existing trees.
They are alternatives to the cleft graft when the limbs are too large for a cleft graft or if the bark is slipping.

The bark on the rootstock must be slipping. Vertical knife cuts 2.5 to 5 cm (1 to 2 in.) long are made at the top end of the rootstock stub through the bark to the wood.
The bark is then lifted slightly along both sides of this cut, in preparation for the insertion of the scion.


Bridge grafting

Bridge grafting is another form of repair grafting where scion pieces are used to create a ―bridge‖ across the damaged trunk.
If the damage to the bark is extensive, the tree is almost certain to die, because the roots will be deprived of their carbohydrate supply from the top of the tree unless repaired.

Bridge grafting is best performed in early spring as active growth of the tree is beginning and the bark is slipping easily.


Cleft graft

The cleft graft is one of the oldest methods of grafting. It is used to topwork trees, either in the trunk of a small tree or in the scaffold branches of a larger tree. In topworking trees, this method should be limited to rootstock branches about 2.5 to 10 cm (1 to 4 in.) in diameter and to species with fairly straight-grained wood that will split evenly.


Banana graft (four-flap)

The four-flap or banana graft is used in topworking small-caliper trees or tree limbs up to 2.5 cm (1 in.) in diameter.
This field graft is normally done manually, but there is a tool that aids in stripping the rootstock bark flaps from the wood.
It is a graft used on pecans in Texas.



Seedlings (or rooted cuttings) planted beside the damaged tree, or suckers arising near its base, are grafted into the trunk of the tree to provide a new root system.

A long slot is cut in the trunk of the tree by removing a piece of bark the width of the seedling and just as long as the cut surface made on the seedling.

A small flap of bark is left at the upper end of the slot, under which the wedge end of the seedling is inserted.

The seedling is nailed into the slot with four or five small, flat-headed wire nails


Inlay approach

The inlay approach graft may be used if the bark of the rootstock plant is considerably thicker than that of the scion plant. A narrow slot, 7.5 to 10 cm (3 to 4 in.) long, is made in the bark of the rootstock plant by making two parallel knife cuts and removing the strip of bark between. This can be done only when the rootstock plant is actively growing and the bark ―slipping

The slot should be exactly as wide as the scion to be inserted. The stem of the scion plant should be given a long, shallow cut along one side, of the same length as the slot in the rootstock plant. This cut surface of the scion branch should be laid into the slot cut in the rootstock plant and held there by nailing with two or more small, flat-headed wire nails.


Nurse root (lilac)

Stem cuttings of a difficult-to-root species can sometimes be induced to develop adventitious roots by making a temporary ―nurse-root‖ graft. The plant to be grown on its own roots is temporarily grafted as the scion.
Scion rooting can be promoted by applying an auxin, such as indole-3-butyric acid, into several vertical cuts made through the bark at the base of the scion, just above the graft union.


Repair graft

Repair grafting, also known as bridge grafting, provides a bridge across the damaged area. This will partially restore some transport of foods to the roots. If this bridge can carry enough food across the wound, the roots will survive and continue sending water and minerals through deeper tissues to the leaves. The leaves will then manufacture food that permits the tree to develop new tissues to close over the wound and restore normal plant processes.


Root graft (tree peonies)

Root grafts are usually bench grafted indoors during the late winter or early spring.
The scion wood collected previously is held in storage, while the rootstock plants are also dug in the late fall and stored under cool [1.5° to 4.5° C (35° to 40° F)] and moist conditions until the grafting is done.


Saddle graft

The saddle graft can be bench grafted by hand or machine.
The rootstock and scion should be the same size.
The scion is prepared by cutting upward through the bark and into the wood on opposite sides of the scion to form a The side-stub graft is useful in grafting branches of trees that are too large for the whip-and-tongue graft yet not large enough for other methods such as the cleft or bark graft.


Side graft

The Side Insertion Graft (SIG) is suitable for rootstocks with wide hypocotyls such as watermelon.
A 35- to 45-degree angle cut, on both sides is done on the hypocotyl of the scion.


Side-stub graft

The side-stub graft is useful in grafting branches of trees that are too large for the whip-and-tongue graft yet not large enough for other methods such as the cleft or bark graft.
For this type of side graft, the best rootstocks are branches about 2.5 cm (1 in.) in diameter. An oblique cut is made into the rootstock branch with a chisel or heavy knife at an angle of 20 to 30 degrees.


Side-tongue graft

The side-tongue graft is useful for small plants, especially some of the broad- and narrow-leaved evergreen species.
The diameter of the scion should be slightly smaller than that of the rootstock.
The cuts at the base of the scion are made as for the whip-and-tongue graft.


Side-veneer graft

The side-veneer graft is widely used for grafting small potted liner plants such as seedling conifers (most common), deciduous trees and shrubs, and fruit crops.
A shallow downward and inward cut from 25 to 38 mm (1 to 1½ in.) long is made in a smooth area just above the crown of the rootstock.
At the base of this cut, a second short inward and downward cut is made, intersecting the first cut, so as to remove the piece of wood and bark.


Splice graft (whip graft)

The splice graft is simple and easy to make. A simple slanting cut of the same length and angle is made in both the rootstock and the scion. These are placed together and wrapped or tied as described for the whip graft.


Spliced approach graft (Hibiscus in lab)

In the spliced approach graft, the two stems should be approximately the same size. At the point where the union is to occur, a slice of bark and wood 2.5 to 5 cm (1 to 2 in.) long is cut from both stems. This cut should be the same size on each so that identical cambium patterns are made. The cuts must be perfectly smooth and as nearly flat as possible so that when they are pressed together there will be close contact of the vascular cambium layers.



Is a method for the quick propagation of roses. Cutting and grafting is performed in one action.


Tongued-approach graft

The tongued approach graft is the same as the spliced approach graft except that after the first cut is made in each stem to be joined, a second cut—downward on the stock and upward on the scion—is made, thus providing a thin tongue on each piece. By interlocking these tongues a very tight, closely fitting graft union can be obtained.


Top working (top-grafting) (Apple in lab)

To graft scions of another variety on the main branches of (as fruit trees) usually to obtain more desirable fruit


Wedge graft

Wedge grafts are best when the scion and rootstock are about the same diameter. A downward V-shaped cut in made into the center of the rootstock. A corresponding V-shape is cut into the base of the scion and the to


Whip-and-tongue graft

The whip-and-tongue graft is particularly useful for grafting relatively small material about 6 to 13 mm (¼ to ½ in.) in diameter.
It is highly successful if done properly because there is considerable vascular cambium contact.
It heals quickly and makes a strong union.