Gross Anatomy of Lungs and Pleura Flashcards Preview

Pulmonology > Gross Anatomy of Lungs and Pleura > Flashcards

Flashcards in Gross Anatomy of Lungs and Pleura Deck (25):
0

What germ layer do the lungs come from?

Endoderm - they're an outpouching of the gut tube.

1

What do the parietal/visceral pleura have to do with microscope slides?

Like a glass slide with some liquid underneath it, the pleural layers are "glued" together with serous secretions.

2

4-5 things that each lung root (hilum) contains?

Main bronchus.
Blood vessels (arteries and veins).
Lymphatics.
Nerves.

3

What movements increase the volume of the thoracic cavity? (other than the motion of the diaphragm?)

The "bucket handle" motion of the ribs and the "pump handle" motion of sternum increase the transverse and anteroposterior diameters.

4

Muscles used in normal inspiration?
Extra muscles used when needed?

Normal: Diaphragm, external intercostals, anterior fibers of internal intercostals.
Extra: anything attached to rib cage.

5

Muscles normally used in expiration?
Extras?

Normally: Passive recoil.
Extra: Internal intercostals, abdominal muscles.

6

What spinal roots do the phrenic nerves come from?

C3, C4, C5 (keep the diaphragm alive)

7

What happens to the diaphragm during inspiration if one phrenic nerve is lesioned?

The side of the diaphragm with the lesion will paradoxically elevate during inspiration (due to negative thoracic cavity pressure).

8

What ribs does the costo-diaphragmatic recess span in the mid-clavicular line?

6th - 8th ribs

9

What ribs does the costo-diaphragmatic recess span in the mid-axillary line?

8th - 10th rib.

10

What ribs does the costo-diaphragmatic recess span in the paravertebral line?

10th - 12th ribs.

11

Which lung has more lobes?

Right lung - it has 3.

12

Which lobe of the lung is most anterior?

The superior lobe (for both lungs).

13

Surface landmark for where the trachea bifurcates?

Sternal angle.

14

Mnemonic for how the pulmonary artery relates to spatially to the bronchi in each hilum?

RALS - Right anterior, left superior.
Right: pulmonary a. is anterior to bronchus.
Left: pulmonar a. is superior to bronchus.

15

When looking at chest x-rays, you need 2 views.

Right.

16

If Mitch Lewis accidentally inhales a painkiller pill for his kidney stone pain, which bronchus is it more likely to end up in?

The right bronchus -it's wider and more vertical.

17

What's the carina?

U-shaped cartilage in the trachea just before the bifurcation.

18

What defines a bronchopulmonary segment?

Lung tissue that shares a tertiary bronchus and branch of a pulmonary artery.
A segment can be independently surgically resected.

19

How many bronchopulmonary segments does each lung have?

The right definitely has 10.
The left... might have 8, might have 10.

20

Where do the lymphatics of each lung drain?

Right lung -> right lymphatic duct (drains into R. subclavian v.)
Left superior lobe -> thoracic duct (drains into L. subclavian v./L. jugular v. junction).
Left inferior lobe -> right lymphatic duct.

Notably, the left inferior lobe drains to the opposite side.

21

What landmark will tell you if a cross-sectional image is in the superior vs. inferior mediastinum?

The trachea - only in the superior mediastinum.

22

If you can see the trachea, which lobes of the lungs can you usually see?

Just the superior lobes - for most of it.

23

What separates the L. superior lobe from the L. inferior lobe?

The oblique (major) fissure.

24

What separates the R. upper lobe from the middle lobe?

The horizontal (minor) fissure.