Group 3: HAND, FOOT, and MOUTH DISEASE Flashcards Preview

Community Health Nursing 2 (FINALS) > Group 3: HAND, FOOT, and MOUTH DISEASE > Flashcards

Flashcards in Group 3: HAND, FOOT, and MOUTH DISEASE Deck (38)
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1
Q

What is the cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease?

A

coxsackievirus A type
16

2
Q

True or False

Hand, foot,
and mouth disease (HFMD) takes about two weeks to incubate before symptoms such as a sore
throat or mouth manifest.

A

False

It takes about a week

3
Q

_________________ is characterized by a high fever and sores that resemble blisters in
the mouth and throat. Children who are close to one another in daycare facilities and educational
settings are susceptible to the illness, which spreads quickly among them. This is similar to hand, foot,
and mouth disease.

A

Viral herpangina

4
Q

Medical professionals refer to a raised area of skin that is filled with fluid as a _______ or
vesicle. Vesicles are produced by this frequent cause of blistering when friction between your
skin’s layers causes the skin layers to separate and fill with fluid.

A

Blisters

5
Q

___________an inflammation (swelling) of the linings that surround the spinal cord and brain.
The swelling is typically brought on by a bacterial or viral infection of the fluid surrounding the
brain and spinal cord.

A

Meningitis

6
Q

Sources of spread of infection could be through the following

A

● Nose and throat secretions, such as saliva, drool, or nasal mucus
● Fluid from blisters or scabs
● Feces (poop)

7
Q

True or False

Viral infections are what cause hand, foot, and mouth disease. When a person has one of these
viruses, they are contagious, which means they can spread it to other people

A

True

8
Q

True or False

The first week of illness is typically the most contagious period for those with hand, foot,
and mouth disease. Sometimes, even after symptoms subside or even in the absence of any
symptoms, people can still transmit the virus to others for days or even weeks.

A

True

9
Q

True or False

Indirect transmission like touching surfaces and items that are infected with the virus, such as toys or doorknobs, and then
touching your eyes, nose, or mouth are not a cause how HFMD spreads.

A

False

10
Q

True or False

HFMD could spread through if a sick person coughs or sneezes, contact with respiratory droplets containing virus particles
occurs.

A

True

11
Q

True or False

HFMD could spread through changing diapers, for example, and then touching your eyes, nose, or mouth after touching
someone else’s infected feces.

A

True

12
Q

Give the three common viruses that causes HFMD

A

1.Coxsackievirus A16
2.Coxsackievirus A6
3. Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71)

13
Q

True or False

Coxsackievirus A6 is typically the most common cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease in the United States. Other coxsackieviruses can also cause the illness.

A

False

Coxsackievirus A16

14
Q

True or False

Coxsackievirus A16 can also cause HFMD and the symptoms may be more severe.

A

False

Coxsackievirus A6

15
Q

True or False

Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) has been associated with cases and outbreaks in East and Southeast Asia. Although rare, EV-A71 has been associated with more severe diseases such as encephalitis (swelling of the brain).

A

True

16
Q

True or False

Most people with hand, foot, and mouth disease get better on their own in 10 to 14 days.

A

False

7 to 10 days

17
Q

True or False

There is no specific medical treatment for hand, foot, and mouth disease.

You can take steps to relieve symptoms and prevent dehydration while you or your child are sick.

A

True

18
Q

True or False

Hand, foot, and mouth disease is common in infants and children younger than 5 years old

A

True

19
Q

Signs and symptoms of HFMD (CDC)

A
  1. Fever and flu-like symptoms (symptoms inclunding fever, eating or drinking less, sore throat, feeling unwell)
  2. Mouth sores
  3. Skin rash (The rash is commonly found on the hands and feet. It can also show up on the buttocks, legs, and arms)
20
Q

Signs that swallowing might be painful for a child:

A

-Not eating or drinking
-Drooling more than usual
-Only wanting to drink cold fluids

21
Q

True or False

Back of the mouth and throat sores could be signs of herpangina, a virus-related illness.
Herpangina also includes sudden, high fever and, in some cases, seizures. On the hands, feet, or other parts of the body, sores can occasionally appear.

A

True

22
Q

True or False

Typically, it takes 3 to 6 days from the time of initial infection until the onset of
symptoms (incubation period). It’s possible for kids to get a fever and a sore throat. They
occasionally feel unwell and lose their appetite.

A

True

23
Q

True or False

In diagnosing hand, foot, and mouth disease,
healthcare providers can usually tell if someone has hand, foot, and mouth disease by examining the patient and the rash appearance while considering the patient’s age and other symptoms.

A

True

24
Q

In diagnosing HFMD, healthcare providers might collect samples from the patient’s _________ or __________ and send them to a laboratory to test for the virus. However, these tests are rarely done.

A

throat or feces (poop)

25
Q

True or False

Take over-the-counter medications to relieve fever and pain caused by mouth sores. Give aspirin to children.

A

False

Never give aspirin to children.

26
Q

True or False

If symptoms do not improve after 10 days and child is very young, especially younger than 6 months, you must seek a healthcare provider.

A

True

27
Q

True or False

Avoid giving lemonade, cranberry juice, and other acidic fruit juices to the child with HFMD. They might aggravate the mouth sores.

A

True

28
Q

True or False

If your child is younger than one year
old, keep giving him or her formula, breastmilk, or both. The alternative is Pedialyte®. Offer
soft, simple-to-swallow foods like eggs, mashed potatoes, applesauce, or oatmeal. If swallowing
causes pain, your child might not want to eat much.

A

True

29
Q

The nurse is assigned to a client who has been diagnosed with hand, foot, and mouth disease. Which PPE will the nurse plan to use when preparing to assess the client? (Select all that apply.)

  1. Gloves
  2. Goggles
  3. Gown
  4. N95 respirator
  5. Surgical face mask
  6. Shoe covers

A. 1, 2, and 3
B. 1, 2, and 4
C. 1, 3, and 4
D. 1, 4, 5, and 6
E. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6

A
  1. Answer: C. 1, 3, and 4.

Option C: Prioritization. The nurse should don an N95 respirator or high-efficiency particulate air filter respirator, a gown, and gloves because HFMD is spread through airborne means and by direct contact with lesions.
Options A, B, D, and E: Surgical face masks filter particularly large particles and will not render protection from HFMD. Goggles and shoe covers are not required for airborne or contact precautions.

30
Q
  1. The school nurse is asked which action will take to have the most impact on the incidence of infectious diseases in school. The correct response is:

A. Grant written information about infection control to all parents
B. Ensure that students are immunized according to national guidelines
C. Make soap and water easily accessible in the classrooms
D. Educate students on how to cover their mouths when coughing

A

Answer: B. Ensure that students are immunized according to national guidelines.

Option B: Prioritization. The incidence of once-common infectious diseases like measles, chickenpox, and mumps has been most effectively reduced by immunization of all school-aged children.
Option A, C, and D: The other options are also important but will not have much impact as immunization.

31
Q

You are the charge nurse on the pediatric unit when a pediatrician calls wanting to admit a child with hand, foot, and mouth disease. Which of these factors is of most concern in determining whether to admit the child to your unit?

A. There are several children receiving chemotherapy on the unit.
B. The infection control nurse liaison is not on the unit today.
C. The unit is not staffed with the usual number of RNs.
D. No negative-airflow rooms are available on the unit.

A

Answer: D. No negative-airflow rooms are available on the unit.

Option D: Because clients with HFMD require implementation of airborne precautions, which include placement in a negative airflow room, this child cannot be admitted to the pediatric unit.
Option A, B, and C: The other circumstances may require actions such as staff reassignments but would not prevent the admission of a client with HFMD.

32
Q

A client has hand, foot, and mouth disease. Contact precautions are initiated. Which rule must be observed to follow contact precautions?

A. A clean gown and gloves must be worn when in contact with the client.
B. Everyone who enters the room must wear an N-95 respirator mask.
C. All linen and trash must be marked as contaminated and send to biohazard waste.
D. Place the client in a room with a client with an upper respiratory infection.

A

Answer: A. A clean gown and gloves must be worn when in contact with the client.

Option A: A clean gown and gloves must be worn when any contact is anticipated with the client or with contaminated items in the room.
Option B: A respirator mask is required only with airborne precautions, not contact precautions.
Option C: All linen must be double-bagged and clearly marked as contaminated.
Option D: The client should be placed in a private room or in a room with a client with an active infection caused by the same organism and no other infections.

33
Q

Which element in the circular chain of infection can be eliminated by preserving skin integrity?

A. Host
B. Reservoir
C. Mode of transmission
D. Portal of entry

A

Answer: D. Portal of entry

Option D: In the circular chain of infection, pathogens must be able to leave their reservoir and be transmitted to a susceptible host through a portal of entry, such as broken skin.

34
Q

Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is a febrile disorder usually caused by pathogens such as:

a.Coxsackievirus A16

b.Enterovirus 71

c.A or B

A

A or B

35
Q

All of the following statements regarding hand-foot-and-mouth (HFMD) disease are true EXCEPT:

a. The disease is more common among young children

b. Fever is an uncommon symptom

c. Infection causes a vesicular eruption on the hands, feet and oral mucosa

A

B

36
Q

True or False. Onychomadesis (painful nail shedding) is common during convalescence of HFMD.

A

True

According to a chapter about hand-foot-and-mouth disease published online in the Merck Manual Professional Version, “onychomadesis (painless nail shedding) is common during convalescence.”

37
Q

True or False. Morbidity and mortality are significantly higher with coxsackievirus A16 than with enterovirus 71 for HFMD.

A

False

According to a chapter about hand-foot-and-mouth disease published online in the Merck Manual Professional Version, “infection with EV-71 may be accompanied by severe neurologic manifestations (eg, meningitis, encephalitis, polio-like paralysis). Morbidity and mortality are significantly higher with EV-71 [enterovirus 71] than with coxsackievirus A16 [coxsackivirus 16] or other enteroviruses.”

38
Q

Which of the following is not recommended for children with HFMD?

a. Salt-water rinses

b. Salty foods

c. Acidic foods

d. A and B

e. B and C

A

“Treatment of HFMD is symptomatic. It includes meticulous oral hygiene (using a soft toothbrush and salt-water rinses), a soft diet that does not include acidic or salty foods, and topical measures,” according to a chapter about hand-foot-and-mouth disease published online in the Merck Manual Professional Version.