Group 5: MENINGOCOCCEMIA Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Group 5: MENINGOCOCCEMIA Deck (46)
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1
Q

__________ made the first discovery of Neisseria meningitidis (N. meningitidis) in 1887 after studying the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a patient who had meningitis.

A

Weichselbaum

2
Q

what has caused its substantial impact (meningococcemia) is its link to ____________________

A

meningococcal meningitis and fulminant meningococcemia

3
Q

Based on Belleza,RN, 2021,Patients with acute meningococcemia may present with 1 of 3 syndromes:

A
  • Meningitis
  • Meningitis with Meningococcemia,
  • Meningococcemia without obvious Meningitis.
4
Q

This kind of disease may have transmitted to person-to-person by __________, kissing or ______________.

A

secretion, respiratory droplets

5
Q

___________ occurs when bacteria infect the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord.

A

Meningitis

6
Q

_______________ is the medical term for an infection that persists in the blood but does not affect the brain or spinal cord.

Additionally, meningitis and meningococcemia can both happen simultaneously. In this case, the pathogen initially manifests itself in the bloodstream before traveling to the brain.

A

Meningococcemia

7
Q

According to CDC or Center for Disease Control and Prevention 2021, Meningococcemia are classified into serogroups based on the structure of the polysaccharide capsule. There are at least 12 serotypes based on unique capsular polysaccharides of N. meningitidis with serotypes A, B, C, W, X, and Y, causing most meningococcal infections. Serotypes A and C are the main serotypes that cause meningococcal disease in Africa. Serotypes B and C are the main serotypes in Europe and the Americas, and serotype Y, generally causing infection in the United States and Canada. Serotype W is the cause of epidemic outbreaks worldwide.

A

(part ng intro)

8
Q

__________ are the main serotypes that cause meningococcal disease in Africa.

A

Serotypes A and C

9
Q

______________ are the main serotypes in Europe and the Americas, and __________, generally causing infection in the United States and Canada.

A

Serotypes B and C, serotype Y

10
Q

___________ is the cause of epidemic outbreaks worldwide.

A

Serotype W

11
Q

Meningococcal illness is widespread throughout, with temperate regions experiencing an increase in infections in the winter and spring. In the sub-Saharan (African) meningitis belt, which spans 26 nations, is the name given to this region. According to Bush. L. et al., 2022, attack rates ranged from 100 to 800/100,000 in large African epidemics, which were frequently brought on by serogroup A. Both sexes are equally affected by meningococcemia.

However, the majority of instances arise in people ______ of age or younger, and 50% of these occurrences affect children under the ________.

A

20 years, age of 5

12
Q

The two seasons of the year when instances are reported most frequently are ____________.

A

winter and spring

13
Q

Epidemics can happen in congested areas and typically happen every ____________.

A

20 to 30 years

14
Q

Meningoccemia may be to blame for the abrupt onset of extreme physical depression (shock), which could be fatal without prompt medical attention. Meningococcemia comes in two different kinds. Unlike chronic meningococcemia, which has a waxing and waning course, fluminant meningococcemia develops very quickly and is more severe.

A

(read niyo na lang, wala akong maisip na tanong)

15
Q

_______________ is a life-threatening but highly preventable disease that usually affects children and young adults. Within hours of onset of symptoms, it may lead to shock and even death if prompt and appropriate medical care is not given (Belleza. M., 2021).

A

Meningococcemia

16
Q

The two most common types of meningococcal infections are ______________. Both of these types of infections are very serious and can be deadly in a matter of hours.

A

meningitis and septicemia

17
Q

Meningococcal disease is an acute, severe illness caused by the bacterium ____________. A leading cause of bacterial meningitis and sepsis. (Mbaeyi, S. et al., 2021).

A

Neisseria meningitidis

18
Q

The bacteria (Neisseria meningitidis) frequently persist in the ___________________ of a person without showing any symptoms of sickness. For instance, if you are around someone who has the illness and they cough or sneeze, you could be infected.

A

upper respiratory tract

19
Q

__________________ initially causes petechiae, which become confluent and rapidly progress to ecchymoses.

A

Fulminant meningococcemia

20
Q

Since there has a continuous on taking how to reduce this kind of epidemic. There are actually ____ meningococcal vaccines licensed in the U.S.(Saling, J., 2021).

A

four

21
Q

The first vaccine was ___________________________ and approved in 1978. And _________________________ approved in 2005 which made the body’s immune system easy to see and recognize the antigens.

A

meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine or MPSV4, meningococcal conjugate vaccine or MCV4

22
Q

The Quadrivalent Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccines which are:

A
  • Menactra 9 months to 55 years’ old
  • Menevo- people ages 2 to 55
  • MPSV4 people over 55 as well as people 2 to 55.
23
Q

And in 2015, Serogroup B Meningococcal Vaccines was made which are:

A
  • MenB-FHbp (Trumenba)- three-dose schedule
  • MenB-4C (Bexsero) - two doses
24
Q

is an eating disorder characterized by an abnormally low body weight, an intense fear of gaining weight and a distorted perception of weight.

A

Anorexia

25
Q

broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic used for the treatment of bacterial infections in various locations, such as in the respiratory tract, skin, soft tissue, and urinary tract.

A

Ceftriaxone

26
Q

third generation cephalosporin used to treat susceptible Gram negative and Gram positive bacterial infections.

A

Cefotaxime

27
Q

used to treat bacterial infections in many different parts of the body. It belongs to the class of medicines known as cephalosporin antibiotics.

A

Cefuroxime

28
Q

a clear, colorless, watery fluid that flows in and around your brain and spinal cord. Your brain and spinal cord make up your central nervous system.

A

Cerebrospinal fluid

29
Q

type of anti-inflammatory drug, used to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system.

A

Corticosteroid

30
Q

is a medical descriptor for any event or process that occurs suddenly and escalates quickly, and is intense and severe to the point of lethality

A

Fulminant

31
Q

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

A
  1. Sudden Intense Headache.
  2. Vomiting.
  3. Nausea.
  4. Muscle Pain.
  5. Skin Rashes.
  6. Diarrhea.
  7. Fever.
  8. Cold hands & Feet.
32
Q

(SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS)

When meningitis and meningococcemia coexist, the affected person may experience the aforementioned symptoms in addition to the combination of_____________________________. Moreover, ________________________ may also be present which is the inflammation of the transparent membrane of the conjunctiva that makes the white part of the eyeball to turn pink can also be an indication of the disease though less common.

A

headache, confusion, stiff neck, and muscle pain, influenza types, conjunctivitis (pink eye)

33
Q

Fulminant Meningococcemia is also known as ___________________ and is the most severe form of the disorder. The disease comes on very suddenly and the progression of the symptoms is very rapid.

A

Waterhouse-Friderichsen Syndrome

34
Q

(SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS)

Fulminant Meningococcemia… In less than a few hours the affected individual may experience ____________________. A _______ appears on the arms and legs and spreads very quickly over the body including the eyes and nose.

In addition, the affected individuals ___________ may drop dangerously, the fever may drop dramatically, and they may go into _____. Without immediate medical treatment this disorder can be life-threatening.

A

-very high fever, chills, weakness, vomiting and severe headache
-red rash

  • blood pressure
  • shock
35
Q

(SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS)

A more uncommon form of the disease is chronic meningococcemia. It is characterized by ______________ that lasts for weeks or months. It’s possible for muscle and joint pain, a headache, and a skin rash to come and go. The disorder may also present with an ______________ in this form.

A
  • intermittent fever
  • enlarged spleen
36
Q

(DIAGNOSTICS)
Common tests to diagnose meningitis include:

Person lies flat on their back facing upwards, one of the legs is raised with the knee flexed to a 90 degree angle. Then the leg is supported and slowly straightened the knee. If this causes back pain, it’s called Kernig’s sign.

A

First Manuever

37
Q

(DIAGNOSTICS)
Common tests to diagnose meningitis include:

Person lies flat then supporting the head slowly flexed. If this caused them to automatically flex their knees or hips, it’s called Brudzinski’s sign.

A

Second Manuever

38
Q

(DIAGNOSTICS)
Common tests to diagnose meningitis include:

A blood sample is placed in a special dish to see if it grows microorganisms such as bacteria. This is called a _________. A sample also may be placed on a slide and stained. Then it will be studied under a microscope to see whether bacteria are present.

A

Blood Cultures

39
Q

(DIAGNOSTICS)
Common tests to diagnose meningitis include:

Computerized tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the head may show swelling or inflammation. X-rays or CT scans of the chest or sinuses may show an infection that may be associated with meningitis.

A

Imaging

40
Q

(DIAGNOSTICS)
Common tests to diagnose meningitis include:

A definitive diagnosis of meningitis requires a ___________ to collect cerebrospinal fluid. In people with meningitis, the fluid often shows a low sugar level along with an increased white blood cell count and increased protein.

A

Spinal Tap

41
Q

(Treatment)

A variety of ________ are used by doctors to treat meningococcal disease. The treatment should begin as soon as possible.

A

antibiotics

42
Q

(Treatment)

On the off chance that a specialist suspects meningococcal illness, they will give the individual _________ immediately. Antibiotics like _____________ that reduce mortality risk.

A
  • anti-toxins
  • ampicillin or penicillin
43
Q

(Treatment)

In adults, __________ is typically administered intravenously.

A

Penicillin G

44
Q

(Treatment)

In children, _________ is still the treatment of choice; however, prior to beginning treatment, other organisms must be ruled out.

A

penicillin

45
Q

(Treatment)

Other antibiotics are used in patients who are unable to take penicillin, such as: ___________________________.

A

ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, and cefuroxime

46
Q

Meningococcal disease patients may require additional treatments, such as the following, depending on the severity of the infection:

A

Breathing support
* Medications to treat low blood pressure
* Surgery to remove dead tissue
* Wound care for parts of the body with damaged skin