Group 4: INFLUENZA Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Group 4: INFLUENZA Deck (27)
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1
Q

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), _______ commonly called “Flu”, is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses that infect the nose, throat, and lungs.

A

Influenza

2
Q

__________ viruses are only known to cause flu disease specifically during the flu pandemic. This only occurs when a new and different influenza A virus emerges, and they can spread rapidly among people. It is further classified into subtypes according to the combinations of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), the proteins on the surface of the virus.

A

Influenza A

3
Q

The ________ viruses are known to infect only humans and seals. It mutates at a rate 2 to 3 times slower than type A.

A

Influenza B

4
Q

The _______ virus is known to infect humans and pigs. Flue due to the type C virus is rare compared with type A or B, yet it can be severe and can cause local epidemics.

A

Influenza C

5
Q

The _________ viruses primarily infect cattle and are not known to infect or cause illness in people.

A

Influenza D

6
Q

Young children under ____ are most likely to get sick from the flu rather than people __ and older who are least likely to get sick from the flu.

A

age 2, 65

7
Q

The Influenza Pandemic started from ________ wherein it came in three waves, first is in spring season in _____, second which is the deadliest wave in late summer and fall and third is weakened in early ____.

A

1918 to 1919

The Influenza Pandemic started from 1918 to 1919 wherein it came in three waves, first is in spring season in 1918, second which is the deadliest wave in late summer and fall and third is weakened in early 1919.

8
Q

The estimated number of people that became ill based on U.S studies is five million people and hundred thousand of people died that reduces the life expectancy of Americans. Moreover, the seasonal incidence of flu changes based on the severity of flu season and varies from the proportion of people who get sick from the flu. The study published by Clinical Infectious Disease found that between 3% and 11% of the U.S. population gets infected and develops flu symptoms each year.

A

basa na lang hehe

9
Q

Most cases of Influenza viruses tend to occur between October and May of the following
year. This can cause mild to severe illness and sometimes lead to death therefore the best way to prevent acquiring the flu is by getting a flu vaccine every year. WHO stated that the influenza vaccine among healthy adults provides protection even when circulating viruses do not precisely match the vaccine viruses. Although the annual vaccine isn’t 100% as stated by a CDC study, it is still important especially for people at high risk of influenza complications to reduce the chances of having severe complications from the infection.

A

basa na lang (Intro)

10
Q

Also known as “Infectious”, it is defined as (of a disease) easily transmitted or is spread from one person or organism to another by direct or indirect contact.

A

Contagious

11
Q

A feeling of constant tiredness or weakness and can be physical, mental or a combination of both.

A

Fatigue

12
Q

A feeling of uneasiness in the stomach that often accompanies the urge to vomit but does not always lead to vomiting.

A

Nausea

13
Q

In molecular biology, hemagglutinins are receptor-binding membrane fusion glycoproteins produced by viruses in the Paramyxoviridae family. Hemagglutinins are responsible for binding to receptors on red blood cells to initiate viral attachment and infection.

A

Hemagglutinin (HA)

14
Q

also called sialidase, any of a group of enzymes that cleave sialic acid, a carbohydrate occurring on the surfaces of cells in humans and other animals and in plants and microorganisms.

A

Neuraminidase (NA)

15
Q

Acute symptoms of influenza

A

High temperature, sore throat, runny nose,
headache, muscle and joint pain, and a severe malaise (feeling unwell). The cough may be strong and linger for two weeks or more.

Most people get through fever and other symptoms in a week or less without needing to see a doctor

16
Q

influenza can result in serious illness or even death, especially in persons who may be at high risk. (Signs and Symptoms)

A
  • sudden onset of fever
  • cough
  • headache
  • muscle and joint pain
  • severe malaise
  • sore throat
  • runny nose
17
Q

Diagnostic tests available for influenza

A

-viral culture
-serology
-rapid antigen testing
-reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)
-immunofluorescence assays
-rapid molecular assays
-Nasopharyngeal or nasal swab, and nasal wash or aspirate, depending on which kind of test is used. Samples should be collected within the first 3-4 days of illness.

18
Q

________ are antigen detection assays that generally require the use of a fluorescent
microscope to produce results in approximately 2-4 hours with moderate sensitivity and high
specificity.

A

immunofluorescence assays

19
Q

_____________ are a new kind of molecular influenza diagnostic test for upper
respiratory tract specimens with high sensitivity and specificity.

A

Rapid molecular assays

20
Q

___________ are antigen detection assays that can detect influenza viruses within 15 minutes with low to moderate sensitivity and high specificity. One platform uses isothermal nucleic acid amplification and has high sensitivity and yields results in 15 minutes or less. Another platform uses RT-PCR and has high sensitivity and produces results in approximately 20 minutes

A

Commercial rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs)

21
Q

The collection of some respiratory samples for viral culture is essential for determining the influenza A virus subtypes and influenza A and B virus strains causing illness, and for surveillance of new virus strains that may need to be included in the next year’s influenza vaccine.

A

Viral Culture

22
Q

____________ results for antibodies to human influenza viruses on a single serum
specimen are not interpretable and are not recommended.

A

Serologic Testing

23
Q

Treatment

A

● Neuraminidase inhibitors oseltamivir (Tamiflu) and zanamivir (Relenza) should be
prescribed as soon as possible (ideally, within 48 hours following symptom onset) to
maximize therapeutic benefits.
● Antibiotics should be given only for complications of influenza, such as pneumonia and otitis media.
● Treatment is recommended for a minimum of 5 days but can be extended until there is
satisfactory clinical improvement.
● Corticosteroids should not be used routinely unless indicated for other reasons as it has been associated with prolonged viral clearance, and immunosuppression leading to bacterial or fungal superinfection.
● For the circulating influenza viruses - it is resistant to adamantane antiviral drugs (such as amantadine and rimantadine), and these are therefore not recommended for monotherapy.

24
Q

(Treatment)

___________________ and ______________should be prescribed as soon as possible (ideally, within 48 hours following symptom onset) to
maximize therapeutic benefits.

A

Neuraminidase inhibitors oseltamivir (Tamiflu), zanamivir (Relenza)

25
Q

(Treatment)

___________ should be given only for complications of influenza, such as pneumonia and otitis media.

A

Antibiotics

26
Q

(Treatment)

_____________ should NOT be used routinely unless indicated for other reasons as it has been associated with prolonged viral clearance, and immunosuppression leading to bacterial or fungal superinfection.

A

Corticosteroids

27
Q

(Treatment)

For the circulating influenza viruses - it is resistant to ______________________, and these are therefore not recommended for monotherapy.

A

adamantane antiviral drugs (such as amantadine and rimantadine)