Flashcards in Group Interventions Deck (29):
What are the steps in the nursing process?
2. Nursing Diagnosis
3. Outcome Identification
Group Interventions: Assessment
Questions to ask:
Is a group the best way to deal with the issue?
What type of group would be best?
What characteristics of the population would affect the group? (age, sensory deficits).
--> Initial ground work, place time, confidentiality
Group Interventions: Nursing Diagnosis
Group Interventions: Outcome Identification
Students will not experience relapse into substance abusing behavior.
Cost will be less than one inpatient treatment
Students will pass their classes
Students will be satisfied with the group
What are Psychoeducation groups?
1. Task groups- ex. Quality Improvement, meal planning, staffing
2. Teaching groups- increase knowledge
-Symptom identification & management
-Communication skills development
-Multiple family – teach disease process
What are Supportive groups?
Less intense than psychotherapy
Focus on coping for pt & family
--> ex. epilepsy support group, caregivers support group
What are types of self-help groups?
What are Psychotherapy groups?
-Group therapy implemented from a theoretic framework
-Examine & resolve psychological & interpersonal issues within a safe group
What are the different types of intervention groups?
Types of members in a group
Homogenous - Members chosen for pre-selected criteria (i.e. sexually abused women)
Heterogeneous - Regarding diagnosis, sex, age, etc.
Mixed - Share essential feature (i.e. same diagnosis but various ages, sex, etc.
Inclusion definition and types
affects cohesiveness and trust
Closed: No new members added after group begins
Open: Members and leaders change
Tips to choosing a group size
Group size— 7-10 members preferred
Length of sessions— Optimum length = 20 to 40 minutes for lower-functioning groups, 60 to 120 minutes for higher-functioning groups
Seating-- circular without barriers (ex. tables)
Questions to consider when considering participants
Does the purpose of group match the need of the patient?
Does the patient have the skills to participate?
Will other group members accept the new member?
Will the new member be able to make the commitment to attend?
Steps to good Group Leadership
1. Establish the presence of each member
2. Build a working relationship with the group and among participants
3. Clarify outcomes, processes, and skills related to the group’s purpose
--Process: how interactions occur, timing of interactions, roles of members, seating arrangements, tone of voice, nonverbal behavior
--Content: What is said in the group
What are good leadership skills?
-Tracking verbal and nonverbal interactions
-Maintaining a neutral, nonjudgmental style
-Not showing preference to one member over another
-Providing everyone with an opportunity to contribute
The ability to influence the group and other members
Standards of behavior in the group; influence communication and behavior. Standard patterns of interaction and behaviors expected within the group
Types of norms
Explicit (overt) norms: stated rules (confidentiality, everyone speaks, respect each other)
Implicit (covert) norms: unspoken rules, (ex. where each person sits, how much trust is given)
--> Some norms foster curative work and some don’t
Strategies for Successful Intervention
-Monopolizer -acknowledge & redirect (may be extravert)
-“Yes, but…”-encourage own problem solving
-Disliked member-, stay neutral, acknowledge contributions, discuss underlying issues, get assistance, try not to move to another group but this may be necessary at times
-The silent member-respect their silent nature, understand the meaning of the silence (may be introvert)
-Group conflict- normal part of process
--> ID the problem, win-win expectations, ID what each wants. brainstorming, combine options into win-win expectations
Group Development: Forming
Polite, impersonal, not committed, figuring out goals, testing group relationships
Group Development: Storming
Conflict, resistance, apathy
Group Development: Norming
Develop rules, standards, giving constructive feedback, collaborating, committed to getting the work done. Group develops emotional intelligence (goal oriented, empathetic, able to confront, caring).
Group Development: Performing
Work is getting done, supportive of each other, flexible in their roles
Group Development: Termination Stage
Members grieve for loss of the group
Reestablish themselves as individuals
1. Verbal communication
-Communication network: sociometric analysis, sit next to each other, talk to each other
-Group themes-hopelessness, hope
2. Nonverbal communication
Group Roles/Functions: Task Roles
Focused on group business
-Initiator, information seeker (clarifier)
-Coordinator (spells out relationships between ideas)
-Recorder (serves as group memory)
Group Roles/Functions: Maintenance Roles
Keeping group together
-Harmonizer (mediator & tension reliever)
-Compromiser (may admit error to avoid conflict)
-Gatekeeper (keep flow of communication going)
Groupthink and Decision Making
Tendency of groups to avoid conflict and adopt a normative pattern of thinking
-Can lead to poor decision making because the group is more concerned about being part of the group, rather than thinking independently
-Unclear whether cohesive groups are more likely to experience groupthink
-Be aware of the possibility in decision making groups