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Flashcards in Group Interventions Deck (29):

What are the steps in the nursing process?

1. Assessment
2. Nursing Diagnosis
3. Outcome Identification
4. Planning
5. Intervention
6. Evaluation


Group Interventions: Assessment

Questions to ask:
Is a group the best way to deal with the issue?
What type of group would be best?
What characteristics of the population would affect the group? (age, sensory deficits).

--> Initial ground work, place time, confidentiality


Group Interventions: Nursing Diagnosis

Ineffective coping
Ineffective denial


Group Interventions: Outcome Identification

Students will not experience relapse into substance abusing behavior.
Cost will be less than one inpatient treatment
Students will pass their classes
Students will be satisfied with the group


What are Psychoeducation groups?

1. Task groups- ex. Quality Improvement, meal planning, staffing

2. Teaching groups- increase knowledge
-Symptom identification & management
-Stress management
-Medication management
-Communication skills development
-Assertiveness skills
-Aggression management
-Multiple family – teach disease process


What are Supportive groups?

Less intense than psychotherapy
Focus on coping for pt & family
--> ex. epilepsy support group, caregivers support group


What are types of self-help groups?



What are Psychotherapy groups?

-Group therapy implemented from a theoretic framework
-Examine & resolve psychological & interpersonal issues within a safe group


What are the different types of intervention groups?

1. Psychoeducational
2. Support
3. Self-Help
4. Age-Related
5. Psychotherapy


Types of members in a group

Homogenous - Members chosen for pre-selected criteria (i.e. sexually abused women)

Heterogeneous - Regarding diagnosis, sex, age, etc.

Mixed - Share essential feature (i.e. same diagnosis but various ages, sex, etc.


Inclusion definition and types

affects cohesiveness and trust

Closed: No new members added after group begins
Open: Members and leaders change


Tips to choosing a group size

Group size— 7-10 members preferred

Length of sessions— Optimum length = 20 to 40 minutes for lower-functioning groups, 60 to 120 minutes for higher-functioning groups

Seating-- circular without barriers (ex. tables)


Questions to consider when considering participants

Does the purpose of group match the need of the patient?
Does the patient have the skills to participate?
Will other group members accept the new member?
Will the new member be able to make the commitment to attend?


Steps to good Group Leadership

1. Establish the presence of each member
2. Build a working relationship with the group and among participants
3. Clarify outcomes, processes, and skills related to the group’s purpose
--Process: how interactions occur, timing of interactions, roles of members, seating arrangements, tone of voice, nonverbal behavior
--Content: What is said in the group


What are good leadership skills?

-Tracking verbal and nonverbal interactions
-Maintaining a neutral, nonjudgmental style
-Not showing preference to one member over another
-Providing everyone with an opportunity to contribute


Intervention: Power

The ability to influence the group and other members


Intervention: Norms

Standards of behavior in the group; influence communication and behavior. Standard patterns of interaction and behaviors expected within the group


Types of norms

Explicit (overt) norms: stated rules (confidentiality, everyone speaks, respect each other)

Implicit (covert) norms: unspoken rules, (ex. where each person sits, how much trust is given)

--> Some norms foster curative work and some don’t


Strategies for Successful Intervention

-Monopolizer -acknowledge & redirect (may be extravert)

-“Yes, but…”-encourage own problem solving

-Disliked member-, stay neutral, acknowledge contributions, discuss underlying issues, get assistance, try not to move to another group but this may be necessary at times

-The silent member-respect their silent nature, understand the meaning of the silence (may be introvert)

-Group conflict- normal part of process
--> ID the problem, win-win expectations, ID what each wants. brainstorming, combine options into win-win expectations


Group Development: Forming

Polite, impersonal, not committed, figuring out goals, testing group relationships


Group Development: Storming

Conflict, resistance, apathy


Group Development: Norming

Develop rules, standards, giving constructive feedback, collaborating, committed to getting the work done. Group develops emotional intelligence (goal oriented, empathetic, able to confront, caring).


Group Development: Performing

Work is getting done, supportive of each other, flexible in their roles


Group Development: Termination Stage

Members grieve for loss of the group
Reestablish themselves as individuals


Group Communication

1. Verbal communication
-Communication network: sociometric analysis, sit next to each other, talk to each other
-Group themes-hopelessness, hope

2. Nonverbal communication
-Seating arrangement
-Eye contact
-Body gestures


Group Roles/Functions: Task Roles

Focused on group business
-Initiator, information seeker (clarifier)
-Coordinator (spells out relationships between ideas)
-Recorder (serves as group memory)


Group Roles/Functions: Maintenance Roles

Keeping group together
-Harmonizer (mediator & tension reliever)
-Compromiser (may admit error to avoid conflict)
-Gatekeeper (keep flow of communication going)


Groupthink and Decision Making

Tendency of groups to avoid conflict and adopt a normative pattern of thinking

-Can lead to poor decision making because the group is more concerned about being part of the group, rather than thinking independently
-Unclear whether cohesive groups are more likely to experience groupthink
-Be aware of the possibility in decision making groups


Evaluation: Category of Outcomes

Clinical-symptoms, relapse, readmission, complications, mortality

Functional-social interaction, activities of daily living, work, quality of life, relationships, housing arrangements

Satisfaction-patient, family related to outcomes, provider, group intervention

Financial-resource use, length of stay, cost, revenue