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Flashcards in H&N Deck (409)
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Describe the blood supply of the thyroid gland

R and L inf. and sup. thyroid arteries


Describe the effect thyroid hormones can have on the cardiovascular system

1. Inc. HR
2. Inc. cardiac contraction force
3. Inc. cardiac output


Describe the effect thyroid hormones can have on O2 carrying capacity

Inc. O2 dissociation from haemoglobin


Describe the effect thyroid hormones can have on intermediary metabolism

Inc. glucose absorption from GIT
Inc. carb, protein, lipid turnover


Describe the effect thyroid hormones can have on the nervous system

Enhance wakefulness and alertness
Enhance memory and learning capacity
Required for normal CNS neuronal development and normal emotional tone


Describe the parathyroid glands

Usually 2-4 on each side
Lie on post. surface of thyroid gland
May be embedded within thyroid
Regulate Ca/PO4 levels


What are the 6 general components of saliva?

1. Salivary glands: water, electrolytes, small organic molecules
2. Blood and blood derivatives: intra-oral bleeding, gingival cervicular fluid (serum and inflammatory cells)
3. Extrinsic substances: food debris, toothpaste, m/w
4. Fluids: bronchial and nasal secretions
5. Lining cells: epithelial keratin
6. Microbiota


What are the 6 general functions of saliva?

1. Protection
2. Buffering
3. Digestion
4. Antimicrobial
5. Maintenance of tooth integrity
6. Taste


What 5 factors can affect saliva production,

1. Local disease
2. Systemic disease
3. Medications
4. HandN radiation
5. Chemotherapy


What are the 3 major salivary glands?

1. Parotid
2. Submandibular
3. Sublingual


Describe the shape and location of the parotid gland

Pyramidal shape

Sup: external auditory meatus, TMJ
Ant: overflows mandible with overlying masseter
Inf: overflows post. belly of digastric
Med: styloid process and muscles separating parotid from IJV, internal carotid artery


Describe the blood supply, venous and lymph drainage of the parotid gland

Blood: branches of carotid artery
Venous: retromandibular vein
Lymph: LN within parotid sheath :> DCLN


Describe the the parotid capsule

2 capsules: CT capsule, dense fascial capsule of investing layer of deep cervical fascia


Describe the parotid duct

Stensen's duct
5cm long

Appears in ant. border of gland
Run ant. and down on masseter
Pierces buccinator
Opens opposite 2nd maxillary molar


From superficial to deep list the 4 structures within the parotid gland

1. Facial nerve
2. Retromandibular vein
3. External carotid artery
4. Auriculotemporal nerve - from V3


Describe the submandibular gland

Irregular gland with 2 parts: large superficial part, small deep part


Describe the location and boundaries of the superficial part of the mandibular gland

Digastric between mylohyoid muscle and body of mandible

Ant: ant. belly of digastric
Post: post. belly of digastric and stylohyoid
Med: mylohyoid
Lat: in contact with submandibular fossa on med. surface of mandible


Describe the location and boundaries deep part of the submandibular gland

Superficial to hyoglossus

Med: hyoglossus and styloglossus
Lat: mylohyoid and superficial part of gland
Sup: lingual nerve and submandibular ganglion
Inf: hypoglossal nerve


Describe the blood supply, venous and lymph drainage of the submandibular gland

Blood: facial artery
Venous: facial vein
Lymph: submandibular LN, DCLN


Describe Whartons duct

Submandibular duct
5cm long

Emerges at ant. end of deep part of gland
Runs forward on hyoglossus and mylohyoid
Crossed by lingual nerve and then opens in floor of mouth at side of frenulum of tongue


Describe the sublingual gland

Smallest of major glands
Beneath oral mucosa, in contact with sublingual fossa in lingual aspect of mandible


Describe the blood supply, venous and lymph drainage of the sublingual gland

Blood: sublingual and submental arteries
Venous: sublingual and submental veins
Lymph: submandibular LNs


Describe the ducts of rivinus

Sublingual duct
8-20 ducts
Most open directly onto floor of mouth
Some join submandibular duct


What are 3 salivary disorders?

1. Sialadenitis: inflammation of glands
2. Submandibular duct obstruction: usually by infection
3. Xerostomia: caries, dry, fissured tongue


What are the 3 portions of the tongue?

1. Root: post. 1/3
2. Body: ant. 2/3
3. Apex


What are the 5 structures found on the mucous membrane layer of the tongue?

1. Sulcus terminalis
2. Foramen cecum - thyroglossal duct
3. Papillae
4. Lymph nodules
5. Frenulum


What are the 4 types of tongue papillae?

1. Filiform
2. Fungiform
3. Foliate
4. Vallate


Describe filiform papillae

Most numerous - ant. 2/3
Tiny, pointed parakeratinised projections
Pink/grey colour
Aid in food handling
Touch sensory nerve endings


Describe fungiform papillae

Tiny, globular and raised red spots
Scattered among filiform
Ant 2/3 and mainly lat. and tip
Taste buds


Describe foliate papillae

Lat. margins of tongue
From 3/4 short vertical folds (folia linguae)
Rudimentary in humans
Few taste buds