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Flashcards in H&N Deck (409)
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121

What are the 3 secondary growth cartilages that influence growth of mandible until birth?

Condylar
Coronoid
Symphyseal

122

Describe the function of the condylar cartilage

Week 12
Developing ramus by endochondral ossification
Thick layer persists at birth on condylar head providing mechanism for post-natal growth of ramus

123

Describe the coronoid cartilage

Active at 4 months, disappears before birth

124

Describe the symphyseal growth cartilage

Appear in CT at ends of Meckel's cartilage
Disappears 12 months after birth

125

Name the 2 parts of the tongue and describe the tongues development

During week 4
Localised proliferation of mesenchyme results in formation of several swellings on floor of oral cavity

Oral part (ant 2/3): fusion of lateral lingual swellings and tuberculum inpar
Pharyngeal part (post 1/3): from copula and hypobranchial eminence

126

Where do the muscles and mucosa of the tongue develop?

Muscle: occipital somites
Mucosa: endoderm of pharyngeal floor

127

Where does the mucosa of the 2 parts of the tongue develop?

Oral (ant 2/3): distal tongue buds of 1st branchial arch
Pharyngeal (post 1/3): overgrowth of 2nd arch by hypobranchial eminence of 3+4 arches

128

What is the terminal sulcus?

Boundary between 1st and 3rd arch mucosa

129

Which common carotid artery arises directly from the aortic arch?

The L carotid artery

130

Where does the R common carotid artery arise?

From the brachiocephalic trunk that divides into R carotid and subclavian

131

What are the 2 branches of the carotid arteries?

External - H&N
Internal - cranial

132

What is the carotid sheath?

Fibrous CT enclosing: carotid artery, IJV, vagus nerve and lymph nodes

133

What are the 7 branches of the external CA?

Some Like Fucking Others Prefer S&M

1. Sup. thyroid
2. Lingual
3. Facial
4. Occipital
5. Post. auricular
6. Superficial temporal
7. Maxillary

134

Describe the superficial temporal artery

Arises ant. to ext. auditory meatus (EAM), deep to parotid
Many branches to scalp
Transverse facial artery above parotid duct

135

What branch of the external CAs arises behind angle of mandible and supplies deep facial structures?

Maxillary

136

What are the 3 branches of the maxillary A?

Infraorbital
Posterior superior alveolar
Inferior alveolar

137

Describe the infraorbital A

Branches to ant. and middle sup. alveolar
Ant. supplies upper incisors, canines, maxillary sinus

138

Describe the post. sup. alveolar A

Distributes to maxillary molar and premolars teeth and gingiva, lining of maxillary sinus and gums

139

Describe the infer. alveolar A

Descends close to medial surface of ramus to mandibular foreman
Has incisor, mental, lingual and mylohyoid branches

140

What branch of external CA arises from the ant. side of the CA?

Facial

141

Describe the facial A

Very tortuous and winding
Courses medially to mandible then ant.
Site of facial pulse

142

What are the 3 branches of the facial A?

Sup. and inf. labial A: upper and lower lips
Angular A: nose, angle of eye

143

Where does the lingual artery arise?

Ant. of external CA at level of hyoid bone

144

What are the 4 branches of the lingual A and what do they supply?

1. Dorsal lingual
2. Deep lingual
3. Sublingual
4. Suprahyoid

Sully tissues sup. to hyoid bone: suprahyoid muscles, floor of mouth, tongue

145

Describe the entry of the internal CA to the cranium

Through carotid canal passing through cavernous sinus

146

What is the cavernous sinus?

Thin walled vein where blood pools and is drained
Has CNs 3,4,51,52,6 running through

147

What are the 3 cranial cavity As?

Internal CA
Vertebral
Middle meningeal

148

Describe the internal CA

Enters through carotid canal
2 branches:
Supraorbital - to scalp, above orbit
Supratrochlear - medial of supraorbital, above trochlear

149

Describe the vertebral A

Branches from subclavian, enters through foramen magnum

150

Describe the middle meningeal

From maxillary A of external CA, enters through spinosum
Courses outside dura, supplies calvarium