Flashcards in H&N Deck (409)
What are the 3 secondary growth cartilages that influence growth of mandible until birth?
Describe the function of the condylar cartilage
Developing ramus by endochondral ossification
Thick layer persists at birth on condylar head providing mechanism for post-natal growth of ramus
Describe the coronoid cartilage
Active at 4 months, disappears before birth
Describe the symphyseal growth cartilage
Appear in CT at ends of Meckel's cartilage
Disappears 12 months after birth
Name the 2 parts of the tongue and describe the tongues development
During week 4
Localised proliferation of mesenchyme results in formation of several swellings on floor of oral cavity
Oral part (ant 2/3): fusion of lateral lingual swellings and tuberculum inpar
Pharyngeal part (post 1/3): from copula and hypobranchial eminence
Where do the muscles and mucosa of the tongue develop?
Muscle: occipital somites
Mucosa: endoderm of pharyngeal floor
Where does the mucosa of the 2 parts of the tongue develop?
Oral (ant 2/3): distal tongue buds of 1st branchial arch
Pharyngeal (post 1/3): overgrowth of 2nd arch by hypobranchial eminence of 3+4 arches
What is the terminal sulcus?
Boundary between 1st and 3rd arch mucosa
Which common carotid artery arises directly from the aortic arch?
The L carotid artery
Where does the R common carotid artery arise?
From the brachiocephalic trunk that divides into R carotid and subclavian
What are the 2 branches of the carotid arteries?
External - H&N
Internal - cranial
What is the carotid sheath?
Fibrous CT enclosing: carotid artery, IJV, vagus nerve and lymph nodes
What are the 7 branches of the external CA?
Some Like Fucking Others Prefer S&M
1. Sup. thyroid
5. Post. auricular
6. Superficial temporal
Describe the superficial temporal artery
Arises ant. to ext. auditory meatus (EAM), deep to parotid
Many branches to scalp
Transverse facial artery above parotid duct
What branch of the external CAs arises behind angle of mandible and supplies deep facial structures?
What are the 3 branches of the maxillary A?
Posterior superior alveolar
Describe the infraorbital A
Branches to ant. and middle sup. alveolar
Ant. supplies upper incisors, canines, maxillary sinus
Describe the post. sup. alveolar A
Distributes to maxillary molar and premolars teeth and gingiva, lining of maxillary sinus and gums
Describe the infer. alveolar A
Descends close to medial surface of ramus to mandibular foreman
Has incisor, mental, lingual and mylohyoid branches
What branch of external CA arises from the ant. side of the CA?
Describe the facial A
Very tortuous and winding
Courses medially to mandible then ant.
Site of facial pulse
What are the 3 branches of the facial A?
Sup. and inf. labial A: upper and lower lips
Angular A: nose, angle of eye
Where does the lingual artery arise?
Ant. of external CA at level of hyoid bone
What are the 4 branches of the lingual A and what do they supply?
1. Dorsal lingual
2. Deep lingual
Sully tissues sup. to hyoid bone: suprahyoid muscles, floor of mouth, tongue
Describe the entry of the internal CA to the cranium
Through carotid canal passing through cavernous sinus
What is the cavernous sinus?
Thin walled vein where blood pools and is drained
Has CNs 3,4,51,52,6 running through
What are the 3 cranial cavity As?
Describe the internal CA
Enters through carotid canal
Supraorbital - to scalp, above orbit
Supratrochlear - medial of supraorbital, above trochlear
Describe the vertebral A
Branches from subclavian, enters through foramen magnum