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Flashcards in H&N Deck (409)
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211

What are the 4 branches of V2?

Infraorbital - skin of middle face, labial mucosa
Zygomatic
Sup. alveolar: post.(molars, gingivae, sinus), mid.(premolars, cheek, gums), ant.(canine, incisor, lat. wall + floor of nose)
Pyterygopalatine

212

Describe the mandibular branch of trigeminal

Leaves through foramen ovale enter infratemporal fossa exits as mental nerve through mandibular foramen

213

What are the 5 branches of V3?

Always Believe Lots (Info Actually) Matters

1. Auriculotemporal: sensory to auricle temporal regions (EAM, IJV, scalp), secretomotor to parotid gland
2. Buccal
3. Lingual: floor of mouth, ant. 2/3 of tongue
4. Inf. alveolar: mandible
5. Masticatory muscles

214

What is trigeminal neuralgia?

Uncommon cranial nerve disorder resulting in abrupt, excruciating pain in face

215

What are some therapies of trigeminal neuralgia?

Meditative: antiseizure, muscle relaxant
Conservative: nerve block
Surgery: microvascular decompression, radiofrequency rhizotomy, gamma-knife radio surgery, glycerol rhizotomy

216

Describe the abducens nerve

From hind brain b/w pons and medulla, exits through cavernous sinus to sup. orbital fissure to supply lateral rectus muscle

217

What is the effect of damage to the abducens and how can this be tested?

Inability to rotate eye laterally, at rest eye moves medially

Test: lateral movement of eye

218

What 3 nerves supply the eye?
LR6 SO4 3

3. Oculomotor: eyelid and pupillary constriction
4. Trochlear: sup. oblique muscle; inferolateral eye movement
6. Abducens: lateral rectus muscle; lateral eye movement

219

Describe the facial nerve

Runs from bind brain through IAM forming geniculate nucleus, runs further, emerges through stylomastoid foramen but before gives off stapedius nerve, greater petrosal, chorda tympani before running to parotid gland

220

What is the function of the facial nerve?

Facial expression - motor
Sense of taste - sensory

221

What is the effect of damage to the facial nerve and how can it be tested?

Inability to control facial muscles, distorted sense of taste, dry eyes

Test: motor functions (close eyes, raise brows, smile, whistle); taste

222

What are the 5 branches of the facial nerve outside the facial canal?

Two Zebras Behind My Car

1. Temporal
2. Zygomatic
3. Buccal
4. Mandibular - lower lip and chin
5. Cervical

223

What are the 3 branches of the facial nerve inside the facial canal?
Come Great Steed

1. Chorda tympani: joins lingual of mandibular, ant. 2/3 tongue
2. Greater petrosal: lacrimal, ant. palate
3. Stapedius: to stapedius muscle

224

Describe the glossopharyngeal

From medulla exits through jugular foramen
Motor innervates stylopharyngeus muscle
Sensory to oropharynx and post. tongue

225

Describe the vestibulocochlear

From hind brain exits through IAM gives off
Vestibular: balance; connects to semicircular canals, position relative to space
Cochlear: sound; vibrations from hairs

226

What is the function of the vestibulocochlear and what are the effects and tests for damage?

Function: balance and equilibrium
Damage: deafness, dizziness, nausea, loss of balance
Test: hearing, balance, walk in straight line

227

What are the functions of the glossopharyngeal?

Swallowing, salivation, gagging (motor); touch, pressure, taste, pain of tongue, pharynx, outer ear

228

What is the effect of damage to the glossopharyngeal and how is this tested?

difficulty swallowing

Test: gag reflex, swallowing, coughing

229

Describe the vagus nerve

From medulla exits through jugular foramen

230

What do the sensory fibres of the vagus supply?

EAM and tympanic membrane

231

What does the motor fibres of vagus supply?

Muscles of larynx, respiratory passages, lungs, heart, oesophagus, stomach, SI, most of large intestine and gallbladder

232

What is the function of the vagus nerve?

Swallowing; taste; speech; respiratory, CV, GI regulation
Sensations of hunger, fullness, intestinal discomfort

233

What are the effects of damage to the vagus?

Hoarseness/loss of voice, impaired swallowing and GI motility

234

Describe the accessory nerve?

From medulla and spinal cord emerge through jugular foramen

235

What does the accessory nerve supply?

Trapezius (neck upright) and sternocleidomastoid (lat. move. of neck) muscles

236

What are the general functions of the accessory nerve?

H&N, shoulder movement

237

What are the effects of damage to accessory nerve and how to test for this?

Impaired movement of H&N + shoulders; paralysis of sternocleidomastoid

Test: rotate head, shrug shoulders against resistance

238

What is the function of the hypoglossal?

Innervates tongue muscles: movements of speech, swallowing, food manipulation

239

Describe the hypoglossal

From medulla, exits through hypoglossal canal

240

What are the effects of damage to the hypoglossal and how is this tested?

Difficulty in speech and swallowing, atrophy of tongue, inability to protrude tongue

Test: tongue function