Flashcards in Head and Neck Deck (197)
What are the borders of the anterior triangle of the neck?
Jugular notch of sternum
Medial edge of SCM
What are the borders of the posterior triangle of the neck?
Nuchal line of occiput
What is the origin and insertion of trapezius?
Nuchal line of occiput
Lateral 1/3 of clavicle
What are the sub triangles of the anterior triangle?
Submental (medial to anterior belly of digastric, superior to hyoid)
Submadibular (between anterior and posterior belly of digastric)
Carotid (between posterior belly of digastic and omohyoid)
Muscular (medial to omohyoid)
What is found in the submental triangle?
Small lymph nodes
Origin of anterior jugular vein
What is found in the submandibular triangle?
Lymph nodes and submandibular gland
What is found in the carotid triangle of the neck?
Carotid artery in sheath with vagus nerve and ijv
Deep cervical lymph nodes
What is found within the muscular triangle of the neck?
Vicera of the neck
At what level does the carotid artery bifurcate?
Superior thyroid cartilage (C4)
What are the actions of sternocleidomastoid
Bilateral contraction lifts chin
Unilateral contraction flexes neck laterally and rotates head so ear moves to ipsolateral shoulder
What is in the posterior triangle of the neck?
Roots of brachial plexus
What is the subcutanious tissue of the neck also known as?
Superficial cervical fascia
What are the subdivisions of the deep cervical fascia?
What muscles are found within the superficial cervical fascia and the investing cervical fascia?
Scm and trapezius
Where does the pretracheal fascia extend from and too?
From the hyoid to the fibrous pericardium
How can the pretracheal fascia be subdivided?
Visceral and muscular
Visceral is continuous with the buccopharangeal fascia and contains oesophagus, trachea and thyroid
Muscular sits anteriorly containing the infrahyoid muscles.
Where does the preverterbral fascia run?
Encompasses the vertebral column and muscles, fixed to the cranial bone superiorly and is continuous with the thoracic fascia and axillary sheaths inferiorly
Where do the carotid sheaths blend?
With the pretracheal fascia medially, investing fascia laterally and the preveterbral fascia posteriorly
What are the functions of the cervical fascia?
What is more serious, a reteropnayngeal abscess or parapharangeal abscess? Why?
Reteropharyngeal - space opens directly into mediastinum whilst parapharyngeal space stops at level t2/3
Which is more common, reeteropharangeal abscess or parapharyngeal abscess?
What tends to preceed retro and parapharyngeal abcesses?
Retro - urti
Para - tonsilitis
What fascia sits in the retropharyngeal space?
What are the superficial and deep infrahyoid muscles?
What innervates them?
Omohyoid - C1 to C3 branch of ansa cervicalis
Sternohyoid - C1 to C3 branch of ansa cervicalis
Sternothyroid - C1 via hypoglossal nerve
Thyrohyoid - C2 to C3 branch of ansa cervicalis
What are the functions of the infrahyoid muscles?
Depress the hyoid.
Thyrohyoid can elevate the larynx
Sternothyroid can depress the larynx
What are the suprahyoid muscles and their innervation?
Mylohyoid - n. to mylohyoid b.o. inferior alveolar n. b.o. CNV3
Geniohyoid - C1 via hypoglossal n.
Stylohyoid - stylohyoid branch of facial nerve
Anterior belly of digastric - nerve to mylohyoid
Posterior belly of digastric - digastric branch of facial nerve
What is the path and function of the olfactory nerve?
Special sense smell
Olfactory receptors, through cribiform plate into olfactory bulb, pass back down the olfactory tract to the cerebrum
Where do the optic tracts terminate (most fibres?)
Lateral geniculate nucleus of thalamus
Why does increased icp cause papilloedema?
The nerve is actually a tract covered in meningies and csf. Raised icp impairs drainage causing papilloedema