Flashcards in TOB Deck (110)
Types of light microscopy
Bright field - normal
Dark field - light shined at angle - see reflections only
Phase contrast - light passed through sample changes phase, exaggerate using phase plate
Differential interference contrast - like phase contrast but. Edge highlights
Fluorescence - add fluorescent stain or gene - add specific wavelength and it glows a specific colour
Confocal - fluorescence that uses focused beam so scans
Types of electron microscopy
Types of stains for histology
Eosin - stains basic stuff red
Haemotoxylin - stains acid stuff blue
Periodic acid shiff - stains carbohydrates and glycoproteins magenta
What are the two layers of the basement membrane?
What is mucus?
Liquid containing highly glycosylated polypeptides
What stains mucous glands?
What stains serous glands?
H and E
What are the three types of secretion?
Merocrine - extends membrane as vesicle fuses
Apocrine - shrinks membrane as vesicle forms
Holocrine - cell disintigrates
On which side of golgi are cis and trans?
Cis faces ER
Trans faces PM
What is the covering of carbohydrates over a cell membrane called?
What are sebaceous glands?
Associated with hair follicles
Branched acinar structure
Holocrine secretion of sebum
Sebum helps protect hair and skin
What are the layers of the gi mucous membrane?
Mucosa - epithelium, lamina propria, muscularis mucosa
Muscularis externa - circular, longitudinal
Serosa / adventitia
What is found in the lamina propria?
What is found in the submucosa?
Glands, vessels, lymphatics
What the three sorts of cytoskelelton? What do they do?
Microfilaments - e.g. Actin around edge of cell providing support, shape and movement
Intermediate filaments - tough support network, anchors cell junctions, stabilises cell e.g keratin
Microtubules - long hollow tubes, allow movement within the cell, dynein and kinesin attach organelles to the microtubules. E.g. Spindle fibre or cilia / flagella movers.
What produces spindle fibre? What sort of cytoskeleton is it?
Centrioles within centrosomes
What is the distinction between flagella and cillia?
Cillia move things over surface of cell
Flagella move cell
What is the microtubule structure of flagella?
Two central single tubes surrounded by nine double tubes
What is a peroxisome?
Similar to a lysome but smaller, detoxifies chemicals via oxidation
What is found on the outer coat of a gram positive bacteria?
What is found on the outer coat of a gram negative bacteria?
What are the three main stages of in utero development?
Weeks 1-2 pre embryonic
Weeks 3-8 embryonic
Weeks 9-birth fetal
In what ways can a fetus grow?
Proliferation of cells
Hypertrophy of cells
Secretion of extracellular matrix
What occurs in week one of development?
Differentiation between inner and outer cell masses
Fluid leaks in forming blastocele within blastocyst
Formation of trophoblast and embryoblast
Breakdown of zona pellucidia
Binding to external endometrium
What cavities form in the second week of development?
Amniotic cavity within epiblast
Hypoblast migrates around edge of blastocele forming primitive yoke sac
Extraembryonic mesoderm forms between yoke sac and cytotrophoblast. Lancunae form in this mesoderm, merging to. Frm extraembryonic or chorionic cavity.
Differentiate the extraembryonic mesoderms
Splanchnic - lines the yoke sac
Somatic - lines the amniotic cavity
Chorionic plate - lines chorionic cavity
What are the functions of connective tissue?
Defence against infection
What is ground substance?
What are its functions?
Hyaluronic acid (large GAG) with proteoglycan branches (protein cores with GAG branches)
Highly negatively charged attracting water forming a gel
Good at resisting compression
Filtering role in bowmans capsule
What cell types are commonly found in connective tissue?
Fibro/chondro/osteo - blasts/cytes
What are the 4 types of collagen?
1 - 90%, forms fibres
2 - doesn't form fibres, found in cartilage
3 - reticulin, forms mesh around tissues/organs
4 - doesn't form fibres, part of basement membrane