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Flashcards in TOB Deck (110)
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Types of light microscopy

Bright field - normal
Dark field - light shined at angle - see reflections only
Phase contrast - light passed through sample changes phase, exaggerate using phase plate
Differential interference contrast - like phase contrast but. Edge highlights
Fluorescence - add fluorescent stain or gene - add specific wavelength and it glows a specific colour
Confocal - fluorescence that uses focused beam so scans

1

Types of electron microscopy

Scanning
Transitional

2

Types of stains for histology

Eosin - stains basic stuff red
Haemotoxylin - stains acid stuff blue
Periodic acid shiff - stains carbohydrates and glycoproteins magenta

3

What are the two layers of the basement membrane?

Basal lamina
Lamina reticularis

4

What is mucus?

Liquid containing highly glycosylated polypeptides

5

What stains mucous glands?
What stains serous glands?

PAS
H and E

6

What are the three types of secretion?

Merocrine - extends membrane as vesicle fuses
Apocrine - shrinks membrane as vesicle forms
Holocrine - cell disintigrates

7

On which side of golgi are cis and trans?

Cis faces ER
Trans faces PM

8

What is the covering of carbohydrates over a cell membrane called?

Glycocalyx

9

What are sebaceous glands?

Associated with hair follicles
Branched acinar structure
Holocrine secretion of sebum
Sebum helps protect hair and skin

10

What are the layers of the gi mucous membrane?

Lumen
Mucosa - epithelium, lamina propria, muscularis mucosa
Submucosa
Muscularis externa - circular, longitudinal
Serosa / adventitia

11

What is found in the lamina propria?

Payers patches
Mucosal glands

12

What is found in the submucosa?

Glands, vessels, lymphatics

13

What the three sorts of cytoskelelton? What do they do?

Microfilaments - e.g. Actin around edge of cell providing support, shape and movement
Intermediate filaments - tough support network, anchors cell junctions, stabilises cell e.g keratin
Microtubules - long hollow tubes, allow movement within the cell, dynein and kinesin attach organelles to the microtubules. E.g. Spindle fibre or cilia / flagella movers.

14

What produces spindle fibre? What sort of cytoskeleton is it?

Centrioles within centrosomes
Microtubule

15

What is the distinction between flagella and cillia?

Cillia move things over surface of cell
Flagella move cell

16

What is the microtubule structure of flagella?

Two central single tubes surrounded by nine double tubes

17

What is a peroxisome?

Similar to a lysome but smaller, detoxifies chemicals via oxidation

18

What is found on the outer coat of a gram positive bacteria?

Peptidoglycan

19

What is found on the outer coat of a gram negative bacteria?

Lipopolysacaride

20

What are the three main stages of in utero development?

Weeks 1-2 pre embryonic
Weeks 3-8 embryonic
Weeks 9-birth fetal

21

In what ways can a fetus grow?

Proliferation of cells
Hypertrophy of cells
Secretion of extracellular matrix

22

What occurs in week one of development?

Morula formation
Differentiation between inner and outer cell masses
Fluid leaks in forming blastocele within blastocyst
Formation of trophoblast and embryoblast
Breakdown of zona pellucidia
Binding to external endometrium

23

What cavities form in the second week of development?

Amniotic cavity within epiblast
Hypoblast migrates around edge of blastocele forming primitive yoke sac
Extraembryonic mesoderm forms between yoke sac and cytotrophoblast. Lancunae form in this mesoderm, merging to. Frm extraembryonic or chorionic cavity.

24

Differentiate the extraembryonic mesoderms

Splanchnic - lines the yoke sac
Somatic - lines the amniotic cavity
Chorionic plate - lines chorionic cavity

25

What are the functions of connective tissue?

Support
Substance/form
Protection
Attachment
Defence against infection
Repair

26

What is ground substance?
What are its functions?

Hyaluronic acid (large GAG) with proteoglycan branches (protein cores with GAG branches)

Highly negatively charged attracting water forming a gel
Porous
Good at resisting compression
Filtering role in bowmans capsule

27

What cell types are commonly found in connective tissue?

Fibro/chondro/osteo - blasts/cytes
Myofibroblasts
Adipocytes
Macrophages
Mast cells

28

What are the 4 types of collagen?

1 - 90%, forms fibres
2 - doesn't form fibres, found in cartilage
3 - reticulin, forms mesh around tissues/organs
4 - doesn't form fibres, part of basement membrane

29

What comprises elastic fibres?

Fibrillin (orders fibres)
Elastin (secreted as tropoelastin)