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Flashcards in Urinary Deck (297)
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Functions of the urinary system

Regulation of concentrations of key substances in ecf
By virtue of above effecting icf
Excretion of waste products
Endocrine
Metabolism

1

What are the hormones synthesised in the kidneys?

Epo
Renin
Prostaglandins

2

What is the metabolic activity of the kidney?

Activation of vit D
Catabolism of insulin

3

What proportion and amount of body mass is fluid?

60%
42L

4

What proportion and amount of body fluid is ECF

1/3rd
14L

5

What proportion and amount of ECF is plasma?

20%
3L

6

What is the difference between osmolarity and osmolality?

Osmolarity - number of osmoles of solute per litre solvent
Osmolality - number of osmoles of solute per kilogram solvent

7

How much ultrafiltrate is produced by the kidneys each day? Hw much is reabsorbed?

180 L produced
178.5 L reabsorbed

8

What are the vertebral levels of the kidneys?

Left T11-L2
Right T12-L3

9

What are the layers surrounding the kidney from inside out?

Capsul
Perinephric fat
Renal facia (anterior and posterior)
Paranephric fat (posteriorly)
Parietal peritoneum (anteriorly)

10

How does the kidney attach to the diaphragm? What is the consequence for the kidney position?

Via the renal fascia to the diaphragmatic fascia
Moves with respiration

11

How can the renal medulla be subdivided?

Renal pyramids containing nephrons
Renal columns carrying blood flow from hilum to cortex

12

How many major and minor calices are in each kidney

2 or 3 major calices each with 2 or 3 minor calices

13

Which vessel, artery or vein, is anterior as it enters the kidney?

Vein

14

What is the medical consequence of the segmental arteries not anastamosing in the kidney?

Each segment is surgically resectable

15

What are the autonomic nerves to the kidney?

The splanchnic nerves

16

Where do the ureters origionate? What is their abdominal course?

Uretopelvic junction posterior to artery and vein.
Pass down just anterior to the tips of the transverse processes of the spine

17

Where do the ureters enter the pelvis?

By the bifurcation of the common iliac artery (by the sacroiliac joint)

18

What is the course of the ureters in the pelvis?

Turn anteriomedially at the level of the ischial spines

19

How is backflow prevented from bladder to ureters?

They enter obliquely. Increased bladder pressure and constriction of the muscle on voiding close the lumen

20

What is the only thing that passes between the peritoneum and the ureter in males?

The vas defrans

21

Is the ureter anterior or posterior to the uterine artery in females?

Posterior

22

What is the arterial supply of the ureter?

Branches of the renal, gonadal, aorta, common iliac arteries snd internal iliac arteries
Many anastamoses

23

What nerves innervate the ureters?
Where do pain fibres travel?

Adjacent autonomic plexuses
Pain follows sympathetics back to T11 to L1

24

What is the space between the pubic bone and the bladder?

He potential reteropubic space

25

What supports the neck of the bladder?

Puboprostatic ligament (males) and pubovesicular ligament (females)

26

What is the triangle between the ureters and urethra termed?

Trigone

27

What is the arterial supply to the bladder?

Superior and inferior vesicular arteries

28

What are the three stages of urinary development?

Pronephros
Mesonephros
Metanephros

29

When and where does the pronephros form?
What does it do?

In the cervical region creating a duct to the cloaca
Beginning of week 4, regresses after several days