Flashcards in Urinary Deck (297)
Functions of the urinary system
Regulation of concentrations of key substances in ecf
By virtue of above effecting icf
Excretion of waste products
What are the hormones synthesised in the kidneys?
What is the metabolic activity of the kidney?
Activation of vit D
Catabolism of insulin
What proportion and amount of body mass is fluid?
What proportion and amount of body fluid is ECF
What proportion and amount of ECF is plasma?
What is the difference between osmolarity and osmolality?
Osmolarity - number of osmoles of solute per litre solvent
Osmolality - number of osmoles of solute per kilogram solvent
How much ultrafiltrate is produced by the kidneys each day? Hw much is reabsorbed?
180 L produced
178.5 L reabsorbed
What are the vertebral levels of the kidneys?
What are the layers surrounding the kidney from inside out?
Renal facia (anterior and posterior)
Paranephric fat (posteriorly)
Parietal peritoneum (anteriorly)
How does the kidney attach to the diaphragm? What is the consequence for the kidney position?
Via the renal fascia to the diaphragmatic fascia
Moves with respiration
How can the renal medulla be subdivided?
Renal pyramids containing nephrons
Renal columns carrying blood flow from hilum to cortex
How many major and minor calices are in each kidney
2 or 3 major calices each with 2 or 3 minor calices
Which vessel, artery or vein, is anterior as it enters the kidney?
What is the medical consequence of the segmental arteries not anastamosing in the kidney?
Each segment is surgically resectable
What are the autonomic nerves to the kidney?
The splanchnic nerves
Where do the ureters origionate? What is their abdominal course?
Uretopelvic junction posterior to artery and vein.
Pass down just anterior to the tips of the transverse processes of the spine
Where do the ureters enter the pelvis?
By the bifurcation of the common iliac artery (by the sacroiliac joint)
What is the course of the ureters in the pelvis?
Turn anteriomedially at the level of the ischial spines
How is backflow prevented from bladder to ureters?
They enter obliquely. Increased bladder pressure and constriction of the muscle on voiding close the lumen
What is the only thing that passes between the peritoneum and the ureter in males?
The vas defrans
Is the ureter anterior or posterior to the uterine artery in females?
What is the arterial supply of the ureter?
Branches of the renal, gonadal, aorta, common iliac arteries snd internal iliac arteries
What nerves innervate the ureters?
Where do pain fibres travel?
Adjacent autonomic plexuses
Pain follows sympathetics back to T11 to L1
What is the space between the pubic bone and the bladder?
He potential reteropubic space
What supports the neck of the bladder?
Puboprostatic ligament (males) and pubovesicular ligament (females)
What is the triangle between the ureters and urethra termed?
What is the arterial supply to the bladder?
Superior and inferior vesicular arteries
What are the three stages of urinary development?