Flashcards in Neuro Deck (286)
What is the gap that divides the two hemispheres called? What runs down it?
What divides the pre and post central gyrus
The central sulcus
What divides the temporal lobe from the frontal and parietal?
Lateral cerebral sulcus
What divides the cerebellum from the cerebrum?
The transverse fissure
What connects the lateral ventricles to the third ventricle?
What connects the third and fourth ventricle?
How do the white and grey matter change in the spinal cord in c,t,l and s?
C - big white, small grey
T - smaller white, small grey, lat grey horns
L - big white, big grey
S - small white, big grey
What is at the end of the spinal cord
What are they made of?
Flium terminale - extension of the pia blended with arachnoid and dura)
Where do the periosteal and meningeal dura mater separate?
What covers the pituitary gland?
What are the three ways the brain can herniate with increased icp?
Uncal - the uncus of the temporal lobe is pushed round the tentorum cerebeli
Subfacal - the cingulate gyrus is pushed between the falx cerebri and the corpus callosum
Tonsillar - cerebellar tonsils and brainstem pushed through foramen magnum
Which layer of dura persists in around the spinal cord?
What is the difference between the epidural and extradural space?
Extradural is around the brain. It is potential as the dura is adhered to the bone
Epidural is around the spine. It is real consisting of fat and connective tissue
Why is a basal skull fracture more likely to cause csf leakage?
The dura is not surgically seperable from the bone
At what point do the neuropores fuse?
25 and 28 days cranial and caudal respectivly
What occurs if the neuropores fail to fuse?
What might be suggestive of a neuropore deficit whilst the fetus is in utero? What else could cause this?
A raised alpha fetoprotein level
When should folic acid be taken to reduce chance of neuropore deformity?
3 months before and during 1st trimester
What are the cranial regions of the neural tube - how do they divide?
Procencephalon - telencephalon, diencephalon
Mesencephalon - mesencephalon
Rhomboencephalon - metencephalon, mylencephalon
Why is the axis of the brain different to the axis of the brainstem?
As the tube grows it runs out of space so folds. This creates a cervical flexure and a cephalic flexure
In which regions of the embryonic brain are the ventricles?
What is the derviative of the metencephalon?
Pons and cerebellum
What are the types of spina bifida?
How is the neural tube organised?
Dorsal alar plate (sensory)
Ventral basal plate (motor)
How are the alar and basal plates of the neural tube regualted?
Signalling from (dorsal) roof and (ventral) floor plates
What do neural crest cells contribute to?
What disrupts neural crest cell migration?
What are the functions of astrocytes?
Formationof bbb by foot processes (glia limitans)
Nutrition (glucose lactate shuttle)
Removal of neurotransmitters
Maintain ionic environment
What is the glucose lactate shuttle?
Neurones cant store glycogen so astrocytes break theirs down to lactate, transport it to neurones where it is used to create pyruvate.