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What is the gap that divides the two hemispheres called? What runs down it?

Longitudinal fissure
Falx cerebri

1

What divides the pre and post central gyrus

The central sulcus

2

What divides the temporal lobe from the frontal and parietal?

Lateral cerebral sulcus

3

What divides the cerebellum from the cerebrum?

The transverse fissure

4

What connects the lateral ventricles to the third ventricle?

Intraventricular foramen

5

What connects the third and fourth ventricle?

Cerebral aqueduct

6

How do the white and grey matter change in the spinal cord in c,t,l and s?

C - big white, small grey
T - smaller white, small grey, lat grey horns
L - big white, big grey
S - small white, big grey

7

What is at the end of the spinal cord
What are they made of?

Conus medularis
Flium terminale - extension of the pia blended with arachnoid and dura)

8

Where do the periosteal and meningeal dura mater separate?

Falx cerebri
Falx cerebelli
Tentorum cerebeli
Diaphragm sellae

9

What covers the pituitary gland?

Diaphragm sellae

10

What are the three ways the brain can herniate with increased icp?

Uncal - the uncus of the temporal lobe is pushed round the tentorum cerebeli
Subfacal - the cingulate gyrus is pushed between the falx cerebri and the corpus callosum
Tonsillar - cerebellar tonsils and brainstem pushed through foramen magnum

11

Which layer of dura persists in around the spinal cord?

Meningeal

12

What is the difference between the epidural and extradural space?

Extradural is around the brain. It is potential as the dura is adhered to the bone
Epidural is around the spine. It is real consisting of fat and connective tissue

13

Why is a basal skull fracture more likely to cause csf leakage?

The dura is not surgically seperable from the bone

14

At what point do the neuropores fuse?

25 and 28 days cranial and caudal respectivly

15

What occurs if the neuropores fail to fuse?

Spina bifida
Anencephaly

16

What might be suggestive of a neuropore deficit whilst the fetus is in utero? What else could cause this?

A raised alpha fetoprotein level
Omphalocele, gastroschisis

17

When should folic acid be taken to reduce chance of neuropore deformity?

3 months before and during 1st trimester

18

What are the cranial regions of the neural tube - how do they divide?

Procencephalon - telencephalon, diencephalon
Mesencephalon - mesencephalon
Rhomboencephalon - metencephalon, mylencephalon

19

Why is the axis of the brain different to the axis of the brainstem?

As the tube grows it runs out of space so folds. This creates a cervical flexure and a cephalic flexure

20

In which regions of the embryonic brain are the ventricles?

Telencephalon (lateral)
Diencephalon (third)
Metencephalon (fourth)

21

What is the derviative of the metencephalon?

Pons and cerebellum

22

What are the types of spina bifida?

Occulta
Meningocele
Mylomeningocele

23

How is the neural tube organised?

Dorsal alar plate (sensory)
Ventral basal plate (motor)

24

How are the alar and basal plates of the neural tube regualted?

Signalling from (dorsal) roof and (ventral) floor plates

25

What do neural crest cells contribute to?

Adrenal glands
Sympathetic ganglion
Enteric ganglion
Schwann cells
Melanocytes

26

What disrupts neural crest cell migration?

Alcohol

27

What are the functions of astrocytes?

Formationof bbb by foot processes (glia limitans)
Structural support
Nutrition (glucose lactate shuttle)
Removal of neurotransmitters
Maintain ionic environment

28

What is the glucose lactate shuttle?

Neurones cant store glycogen so astrocytes break theirs down to lactate, transport it to neurones where it is used to create pyruvate.

29

What would happen if K+ rose around the brains neurones? What stops this?

Decreased k gradient so decreased efflux so cell moves closer to membrane potential so increased excitability of neurones
Astrocytes