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Flashcards in Head And Neck Deck (64):
1

Which of the paranasal sinuses drain into the superior meatus?

The posterior ethmoidal cells.

2

Which of the paranasal sinuses drain into the middle meatus?

The frontal and maxillary sinuses, and anterior ethmoidal cells.

3

What drains into the inferior meatus?

The nasolacrimal duct.

4

Which of the paranasal sinuses drain into the spheno-ethmoidal recess?

The sphenoid sinuses.

5

What are the posterior openings of the nasal cavity called?

Choanae.

6

What divides the nasal cavities?

Nasal septum.

7

What are the protruding shelves of bone in the nasal cavity called?

Conchae (turbinate bones)

8

Where is the opening to the auditory tube?

The lateral wall of the nasopharynx.

9

What are the pillars of Fauces?

Palatoglossal, and palatopharyngeal folds.

10

How long is the oesophagus?

25cm.

11

At which vertebral level is the pharyngo-oesophageal junction?

C6.

12

At which vertebral level is the gastro-oesophageal junction?

C10.

13

What is the name of the larynx cartilage on top of the cricoid cartilage?

Arytenoid cartilages.

14

What is the name of the membrane covering the vocal processes of the arytenoid cartilages?

Conus elasticus.

15

What is the name of the space between the vocal folds?

Rima glottidis.

16

Name the two transversely orientated folds in the larynx.

Vestibular folds (superior), and vocal folds (inferior).

17

What is the muscle posterior to the trachea?

Trachealis.

18

Which vertebral level is the hyoid bone at?

C3.

19

Which vertebral level is the bottom of the cricoid cartilage?

C6.

20

What is the level of the sternal angle and tracheal bifurcation?

T4/T5.

21

Which vertebral level is the suprasternal notch and first rib (at the front)?

T2.

22

What is the mastoid process?

The pointy bit behind your ear.

23

Where is the mental protuberance of the mandible?

Bit that makes up the chin.

24

What are the boundaries of the anterior cervical triangle?

The midline from the chin to suprasternal notch, the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, the inferior border of the body of the mandible.

25

What are the boundaries of the submandibular (digastric) triangle?

The inferior border of the mandible, and the anterior and posterior belly of the digastric muscle.

26

What are the boundaries of the carotid triangle?

The anterior border of sternocleidomastoid, the posterior belly of digastric, and superior belly of the omohyoid.

27

What are the boundaries of the submental triangle?

Anterior bellies of digastric muscles and the body of the hyoid bone.

28

What are the borders of the muscular triangle?

The sternocleidomastoid, superior belly of the omohyoid, and the midline.

29

Name the four suprahyoid muscles.

Mylohyoid, stylohyoid, geniohyoid, digastric.

30

Name the four infrahyoid muscles.

Omohyoid, thyrohyoid, sternohyoid, sternothyroid.

31

What are the contents of the anterior triangle?

Larynx, pharynx, oesophagus, common carotid artery, internal jugular vein, vagus nerve (10th cranial nerve), thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, mylohyoid muscle, recurrent laryngeal and superior laryngeal nerves, hypoglossal nerve, submandibular salivary gland.

32

Where are the recurrent laryngeal nerves (branches of the vagus nerve) and what do they supply?

Left = under arch of aorta and up to larynx.
Right = shorter, loops around subclavian artery.
Supply intrinsic muscles of larynx except cricothyroid.

33

Where is the superior laryngeal nerve, and what do its two branches supply?

It's a branch of the vagus nerve, and descends by the side of the pharynx behind internal carotid artery, then divides into external laryngeal nerve (supplies cricothyroid muscle to tense vocal cords), and the internal laryngeal nerve (supplies mucous membrane of pharynx).

34

What does the hypoglossal nerve (12th cranial nerve) innervate?

Intrinsic muscles of tongue.

35

Name the muscles under the sternocleidomastoid from front to back.

Scalene muscles, levator scapulae, splenius capitis.

36

Name the nerve providing motor inner still to the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles.

Spinal accessory nerve.

37

Which nerves contribute ventral rami to the cervical plexus?

Spinal nerves C1 to C4.

38

What are the boundaries of the posterior triangle?

Posterior border of sternocleidomastoid, anterior border of trapezius, middle 1/3 of clavicle.

39

What are the contents of the posterior cervical triangle?

Splenius capitis, levator scapulae, scalene muscles, spinal accessory nerve, inferior belly of omohyoid, branches of cervical plexus.

40

Name the five layers of scalp.

Skin, dense Connective tissue, epicranial Aponeurosis (of occipitofrontalis muscle), Loose connective tissue (facilitates movement of scalp over calvaria), Pericranium (periosteum of calvaria).

41

Name the three groups of muscles of facial expression and their primary function.

Orbicularis oculi - muscles of orbit.
Compressor naris - muscles of the nose.
Orbicularic oris - muscles of the mouth.
Primary function = control respective orifices.

42

Name the contents of the infra temporal fossa.

Lateral pterygoid muscle, medial pterygoid muscle, maxillary artery, inferior alveolar nerve, linguinal nerve.

43

Name the boundaries of the infratemporal fossa.

Lateral = ramus of the mandible.
Medial = lateral pterygoid plate.
Anterior = maxilla.
Posterior = tympanic plate, mastoid and styloid processes.

44

Name the artery that is a branch of the subclavian artery, and travels up the neck through the transverse foramen of the cervical vertebrae.

Vertebral artery.

45

Name the artery that is a branch of the common carotid, and supplies the thyroid gland.

The superior thyroid artery.

46

Name the four branches of the external carotid artery above the superior thyroid artery, in ascending order.

Lingual artery, facial artery, maxillary artery, superficial temporal artery.

47

Which three swellings form the face in the embryo?

Frontonasal prominence
Maxillary prominence
Mandibular prominence

48

Where is the nasolacrimal groove in the embryo?

Between the maxillary prominence and lateral nasal prominence

49

What are the posterior openings of the nasal cavity called?

Choanae - they form the nasopharynx.

50

What type of tissue covers the roof of the nasal cavity?

Olfactory mucosa - cilia of olfactory neurone come int contact with inspired air, also sustenacular cells to sustain the neurone.

51

What is all of the respiratory tract except the roof of the nasal cavity covered with?

Respiratory mucosa - ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells
(Split into conducting mucosa which lines the nasal cavity, nasopharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles...and the respiratory mucosa which is type 1 and type 2 pneumocytes and lines the respiratory bronchioles and alveoli)

52

What is contained in the lamina propria of the respiratory tract?

Loose irregular connective tissue containing nerves, blood vessels, lymphatics, elastin for the elastic recoil of the trachea.

53

Which nerve innervates the muscles of facial expression (e.g the buccinator)?

The facial nerve

54

Which nerve are the mandibular and maxillary nerve branches of?

Trigeminal nerve.

55

Which nerve are the inferior alveolar and lingual nerve branches of?

The mandibular nerve.

56

Which muscle lies in front of the sternothyroid and thyrohyoid muscles?

Sternohyoid muscle.

57

Which muscle lies in front of the sternohyoid muscle?

Anterior belly of the omohyoid.

58

What are the three parts of the thyroid gland?

Right and left lobe and isthmus

59

Where does the superior thyroid artery arise?

First anterior branch of the common carotid artery

60

Where does the inferior thyroid artery arise?

From the thyrocervical trunk, which is a branch of the subclavian artery.

61

Where do the superior and middle thyroid veins drain?

Into the internal jugular vein

62

Where does the inferior thyroid vein drain?

Into the corresponding brachiocephalic vein.

63

Where does the superior laryngeal nerve run?

With the superior thyroid artery, then turns medially to supply the cricothyroid muscle.

64

Where does the recurrent laryngeal nerve run?

With the inferior thyroid artery.