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Flashcards in Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Deck (91)
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1

Name the two folds that make up the Pillars of Fauces.

Palatoglossal fold, and palatopharyngeal fold.

2

What's in the tonsilar fossa between the Pillars of Fauces?

Palatine tonsils.

3

Name the three pairs of salivary glands.

Parotid, submandibular, and sublingual.

4

Which salivary gland empties into the vestibule opposite the second upper molar?

Parotid gland.

5

How long is the parotid duct?

5cm

6

How long is the submandibular duct?

5cm

7

Which artery is enclosed in the parotid gland?

External carotid.

8

Which muscle does the parotid duct penetrate through to enter the vestibule?

Buccinator.

9

Which nerve innervates the submandibular duct?

Lingual nerve.

10

Where are the deep and superficial portions of the submandibular gland?

The superficial portion is below the mylohyoid muscle, and the deep portion curves round to extend above the mylohyoid muscle.

11

What is the opening of the submandibular duct into the oral cavity by the frenulum of the tongue called?

The sublingual papilla.

12

Where is the sublingual gland?

Immediately lateral to the submandibular duct, in the sublingual fossa against the medial surface of the mandible.

13

Where does saliva drain from sublingual duct into oral cavity?

Through minor sublingual ducts and occasionally through major sublingual duct which empties into oral cavity through sublingual papilla along with submandibular duct.

14

Which blood vessels supply the parotid gland?

The external carotid artery and external jugular vein.

15

Which blood vessels supply the submandibular and sublingual glands?

The facial and lingual arteries and veins.

16

Which lymph nodes do the salivary glands drain into?

The lymph nodes on and in parotid gland, and the cervical lymph nodes in the neck.

17

What innervates the parotid gland?

The glossopharyngeal (IX) nerve.

18

What innervates the submandibular and sublingual glands?

Parasympathetic facial nerve (VII)

19

What is the Pouch of Morrison?

The hepatorenal recess.

20

What is the deepest part of the abdominal cavity when someone is lying supine?

The hepatorenal recess - so any fluid will collect there.

21

What is the clinical significance of the bare area of the liver?

The liver is in direct contact with the diaphragm, so lymphatic vessels can flow from the liver through the diaphragm into the thorax, which is a potential path for the spread of cancer.

22

What is the name of the opening of the lesser sac below the portal triad in the hepatoduodenal ligament?

The foramen of Winslow (epiploic foramen). Think DAVE.

23

State the borders of the epiploic foramen (foramen of Winslow).

Anterior = hepatoduodenal ligament.
Posterior = peritoneum covering inferior vena cava.
Superior = peritoneum covering caudate lobe.
Inferior = peritoneum covering start of duodenum and hepatic artery.
Left lateral = gastrosplenic ligament, and splenorenal ligament.

24

How many segments are there in the liver?

8.

25

Why are you more likely to get hepatosplenomegaly rather than just hepatomegaly?

The liver and spleen are related, they're both supplied by the coeliac trunk, and the splenic vein joins the superior mesenteric vein to form the hepatic portal vein. If the liver gate enlarged, the blood flow in it is restricted, which forces more blood "downstream" to the spleen.

26

What is the function of the gallbladder?

To store and concentrate bile.

27

Where does the gallbladder get its blood supply?

Cystic artery - a branch of the right hepatic artery.

28

What is the name of the circular muscle around the ampulla of Vater?

Sphincter of Oddi.

29

What is the name of the hepatopancreatic ampulla?

Ampulla of Vater.

30

What is the term for stones in the billiard tree?

Cholelithiasis.